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Foods 2018, 7(7), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7070107

Study of the Grape Cryo-Maceration Process at Different Temperatures

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cinthia; Monte S. Angelo Complex, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural Science, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, Portici, 80045 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Food Science and Nutrition Section, University of Perugia, via S. Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
4
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
5
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract

This research aimed to determine the effects of cryo-maceration at different temperatures on polyphenol content during the winemaking process of Chardonnay wine. Samples of Chardonnay grapes were subjected to rapid cooling processes by direct injection of liquid CO2 to obtain final temperatures of 10.0, 8.0, 6.0 and 4.0 °C and yield different batches of grape mash. Subsequently, each batch underwent the winemaking process to produce four different wines. The wines obtained were characterized by chemical analyses. We observed higher extraction of polyphenolic compounds with low-temperature cold maceration, particularly when the temperature was reduced from 10.0 to 6.0 °C. Conversely, when the temperature was reduced below 6.0 °C, the increase in polyphenol content in wine was negligible, whereas CO2 consumption increased. Furthermore, a numerical simulation was performed to determine the pipe length, L0, after which the temperature was constant. This condition is very important because it guarantees that after the length L0, the thermodynamic exchange between liquid CO2 and is complete, eliminating the possibility of liquid CO2 pockets in the cyclone. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chardonnay grapes; cryo-maceration; liquid carbon dioxide; polyphenols; numerical simulation Chardonnay grapes; cryo-maceration; liquid carbon dioxide; polyphenols; numerical simulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Naviglio, D.; Formato, A.; Scaglione, G.; Montesano, D.; Pellegrino, A.; Villecco, F.; Gallo, M. Study of the Grape Cryo-Maceration Process at Different Temperatures. Foods 2018, 7, 107.

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