Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Foods, Volume 7, Issue 4 (April 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-23
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue: Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential oils have received increasing attention as natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Synthetic additives can reduce food spoilage, but the present generation is very health conscious and believes in natural products
[...] Read more.
Essential oils have received increasing attention as natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Synthetic additives can reduce food spoilage, but the present generation is very health conscious and believes in natural products rather than synthetic ones due to their potential toxicity and other concerns. Therefore, one of the major emerging technologies is the extraction of essential oils from several plant organs and their application to foods. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, so their use can be very useful to extend shelf-life in food products. Although essential oils have been shown to be promising alternative to chemical preservatives, they present special limitations that must be solved before their application in food systems. Low water solubility, high volatility, and strong odor are the main properties that make it difficult for food applications. Recent advances that refer to new forms of application to avoid these problems are currently under study. Their application into packaging materials and coated films but also directly into the food matrix as emulsions, nanoemulsions, and coating are some of their new applications among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Aqueous Oregano Infusion Application on Microbiological Properties of Samarella (Tsamarella), a Traditional Meat Product of Cyprus
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different types of dried meat products manufactured by different drying and curing methods are very common and well-known with a long history all over the world. Samarella (tsamarella) is one of these products and is famous among traditionally produced meat products in Cypriot
[...] Read more.
Different types of dried meat products manufactured by different drying and curing methods are very common and well-known with a long history all over the world. Samarella (tsamarella) is one of these products and is famous among traditionally produced meat products in Cypriot gastronomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and aqueous oregano infusion (AOI) applications on the microbiological properties of samarella. In order to carry out this study, traditional methods were followed for experimental production of samarella. As a result of this study, five percent OEO application was found to be more effective to reduce microbiological counts but this ratio of OEO application was not accepted by panelists. According to all microbiological results correlated with the sensorial scores, it is concluded that one percent OEO application can be used for samarella production as an alternative preservative method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Authentication and Quantitation of Fraud in Extra Virgin Olive Oils Based on HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Multivariate Calibration
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile
[...] Read more.
High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors. However, selected HPLC-UV chromatographic time-window segments were necessary to achieve discrimination among monovarietal EVOOs. Partial least square (PLS) regression was employed to tackle olive oil authentication of Arbequina EVOO adulterated with Picual EVOO, a refined olive oil, and sunflower oil. Highly satisfactory results were obtained after PLS analysis, with overall errors in the quantitation of adulteration in the Arbequina EVOO (minimum 2.5% adulterant) below 2.9%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Liquid Chromatography in Food Analysis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Par Frying on Composition and Texture of Breaded and Battered Catfish
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catfish is often consumed as a breaded and battered fried product; however, there is increasing interest in breaded and battered baked products as a healthier alternative. Par frying can improve the texture properties of breaded and battered baked products, but there are concerns
[...] Read more.
Catfish is often consumed as a breaded and battered fried product; however, there is increasing interest in breaded and battered baked products as a healthier alternative. Par frying can improve the texture properties of breaded and battered baked products, but there are concerns about the increase in lipid uptake from par frying. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different batters (rice, corn, and wheat) and the effect of par frying on the composition and texture properties of baked catfish. Catfish fillets were cut strips and then coated with batters, which had similar viscosities. Half of the strips were par fried in 177 °C vegetable oil for 1 min and the other half were not par fried. Samples were baked at 177 °C for 25 min. Analysis included % batter adhesion, cooking loss, protein, lipid, ash, and moisture, plus hardness and fracture quality measured using a texture analyzer. A trained sensory panel evaluated both breading and flesh texture attributes. Results found the lipid content of par fried treatments were significantly higher for both corn and wheat batters than for non-par fried treatments. Sensory analysis indicated that the texture of the coatings in the par fried treatments were significantly greater for hardness attributes. Fillet flakiness was significantly greater in the par fried treatments and corn-based batters had moister fillet strips compared to the wheat flour batters. Texture analyzer hardness values were higher for the par fried treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Two Doses of Curry Prepared with Mixed Spices on Postprandial Ghrelin and Subjective Appetite Responses—A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spices are known to provide orosensory stimulation that can potentially influence palatability, appetite, and energy balance. Previous studies with individual spices have shown divergent effects on appetite and energy intake measures. In a real-life context, however, several spices are consumed in combinations, as
[...] Read more.
Spices are known to provide orosensory stimulation that can potentially influence palatability, appetite, and energy balance. Previous studies with individual spices have shown divergent effects on appetite and energy intake measures. In a real-life context, however, several spices are consumed in combinations, as in various forms of curries. Therefore, we investigated changes in postprandial appetite and plasma ghrelin in response to the intake of two doses of curry prepared with mixed spices. The study was undertaken in healthy Chinese men, between 21 and 40 years of age and body mass index ≤27.5 kg/m2. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) and plasma ghrelin was measured using multiplex assay. Compared with the control meal (Dose 0 Control (D0C), 0 g mixed spices), we found significantly greater suppression in ‘hunger’ (both p < 0.05, after Bonferroni adjustments) as well in ‘desire to eat’ (both p < 0.01) during the Dose 1 Curry (D1C, 6 g mixed spices) and Dose 2 Curry (D2C, 12 g mixed spices) intake. There were no differences, however, in plasma ghrelin or in other appetite measures such as in ‘fullness’ or in ‘prospective eating’ scores. Overall, the results of our study indicate greater inter-meal satiety due to mixed spices consumption, independent of any changes in plasma ghrelin response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
PDF Full-text (11796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study,
[...] Read more.
The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma) increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Quinoa Flour for Manufacturing Novel Yogurt-Like Beverages
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
PDF Full-text (6195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1), an exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing (
[...] Read more.
This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1), an exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing (Weissella confusa DSM 20194), and one isolated from quinoa (Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10). During the 20 h of fermentation, W. confusa caused the highest viscosity increase. All the strains had improved concentration of free amino acids and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), polyphenols availability, antioxidant activity (up to 54%), and protein digestibility. The nutritional index (NI) was the highest when L. rhamnosus SP1 was used. The starch hydrolysis index in vitro ranged from 52 to 60. During storage at 4 °C, viscosity and water holding capacity decreased with the exception of the beverage fermented with W. confusa, while all the nutritional characteristics remained stable or slightly increased. Sensory analyses showed that beverages had good textural and organoleptic profiles. Besides the well-known positive properties of the raw matrix, fermentation allowed the obtainment of beverages with different features. Due to the nutritional and functional characteristics conferred to the quinoa beverages, the use of the probiotic and EPS-producing strains showed adequate potential for the industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Technology and Quality of Fermented Food and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A 2-Deoxyglucose-Resistant Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shows Enhanced Maltose Fermentative Ability by the Activation of MAL Genes
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Saccharomyces cerevisiae MCD4 is a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG)-resistant mutant derived from the wild-type strain, AK46, wherein the 2-DOG resistance improves the maltose fermentative ability. In the MAL gene cluster, mutations were detected in MAL11 and MAL31, which encode maltose permeases, and in MAL13
[...] Read more.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae MCD4 is a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG)-resistant mutant derived from the wild-type strain, AK46, wherein the 2-DOG resistance improves the maltose fermentative ability. In the MAL gene cluster, mutations were detected in MAL11 and MAL31, which encode maltose permeases, and in MAL13 and MAL33, which encode transcriptional activators. In maltose medium, the expression of MAL11 and MAL31 in MCD4 was 2.1 and 4.2 times significantly higher than that in AK46, respectively. Besides, the expression of MAL13 and MAL33 also tended to be higher than that of AK46. Although no mutations were found in MAL12 and MAL32 (which encode α-glucosidases), their expression was significantly higher (4.9 and 4.4 times, respectively) than that in AK46. Since the expression of major catabolite repression-related genes did not show significant differences between MCD4 and AK46, these results showed that the higher maltose fermentative ability of MCD4 is due to the activation of MAL genes encoding two maltose permeases and two α-glucosidases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Codium tomentosum Extract in the Properties of Alginate and Chitosan Edible Films
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing search for natural alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials and additives has increased, and seaweed extracts’ bioactivity has made them suitable candidates for incorporation in novel edible films. This study aims to investigate the effect of Codium tomentosum seaweed extract (SE)
[...] Read more.
The growing search for natural alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials and additives has increased, and seaweed extracts’ bioactivity has made them suitable candidates for incorporation in novel edible films. This study aims to investigate the effect of Codium tomentosum seaweed extract (SE) incorporation in alginate and chitosan edible films. Alginate- and chitosan-based films with and without the incorporation of 0.5% SE were characterized according to their physical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Seaweed extract incorporation in chitosan films resulted in an increase of film solubility (50%), elasticity (18%), and decrease of puncture strength (27%) and energy at break (39%). In alginate films, the extract incorporation significantly decreased film solubility (6%), water vapour permeability (46%), and elasticity (24%), and had no effect on thermal properties. Depending on the type of application, the addition of SE in edible films can bring advantages for food conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Films Characterization and Application in Foods)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
PDF Full-text (9965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was
[...] Read more.
Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p < 0.05 as level of significance), and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. About 72% of participants have the perception that organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
PDF Full-text (4593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods Quality Assessed by Chemometrics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Impact of Rodenticides on the Coagulation Properties of Milk
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the impact of the rodenticides (strychnine, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum) on milk pH, rennet coagulation time (RCT), and coagulum strength. Sub-lethal amounts of strychnine and bromadiolone produced an unnaturally large change in milk pH, compared to brodifacoum and brodifacoum
[...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the impact of the rodenticides (strychnine, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum) on milk pH, rennet coagulation time (RCT), and coagulum strength. Sub-lethal amounts of strychnine and bromadiolone produced an unnaturally large change in milk pH, compared to brodifacoum and brodifacoum on milk coagulation properties. All three studied rodenticides significantly affected RCT and coagulum strength. The presence of sub-lethal amounts of each individual rodenticide increased RCT by an overall mean of 17% (p < 0.001). Rodenticide contamination decreased coagulum strength by an overall mean of 26% (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that such changes could be noticeable at the farm, thus, potentially averting the mixture of contaminated milk with the tanker supply, and preventing downstream distribution to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Dairy Foods)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu Plum) Kernels: A Novel Nutrition Source
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
PDF Full-text (5898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine
[...] Read more.
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21.2% DW, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that kernels were a very rich source of minerals and trace elements, such as potassium (6693 mg/kg), calcium (5385 mg/kg), iron (61 mg/kg) and zinc (60 mg/kg) DW, and had low levels of heavy metals. The fatty acid composition of the kernels consisted of omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (50.2%), monounsaturated oleic acid (29.3%) and two saturated fatty acids namely palmitic acid (12.0%) and stearic acid (7.2%). The results indicate that T. ferdinandiana kernels have the potential to be utilized as a novel protein source for dietary purposes and non-conventional supply of linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Can Zymomonas mobilis Substitute Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Cereal Dough Leavening?
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
PDF Full-text (3178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening
[...] Read more.
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening probably because it only ferments glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are scarcely present in flour. However, through alcoholic fermentation, similarly to S. cerevisiae, it provides an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO2 that can rise a dough. Here, we propose Z. mobilis as a new leavening agent, as an alternative to S. cerevisiae, overcoming its technological limit with different strategies: (1) adding glucose to the dough formulation; and (2) exploiting the maltose hydrolytic activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis associated with Z. mobilis. CO2 production, dough volume increase, pH value, microbial counts, sugars consumption and ethanol production were monitored. Results suggest that glucose addition to the dough lets Z. mobilis efficiently leaven a dough, while glucose released by L. sanfranciscensis is not so well fermented by Z. mobilis, probably due to the strong acidification. Nevertheless, the use of Z. mobilis as a leavening agent could contribute to increasing the variety of baked goods alternative to those leavened by S. cerevisiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder (Pseudophycis bachus). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder (Pseudophycis bachus). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in reducing sugar released during an in vitro digestion, and reductions in standardized area under the curve (AUC) values, compared to control pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed
[...] Read more.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reformulation as an Integrated Approach of Four Disciplines: A Qualitative Study with Food Companies
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2014, the Dutch government agreed with the food sector to lower salt, sugar, saturated fat and energy in foods. To reformulate, an integrated approach of four disciplines (Nutrition & Health, Food Technology, Legislation, and Consumer Perspectives) is important for food companies (Framework
[...] Read more.
In 2014, the Dutch government agreed with the food sector to lower salt, sugar, saturated fat and energy in foods. To reformulate, an integrated approach of four disciplines (Nutrition & Health, Food Technology, Legislation, and Consumer Perspectives) is important for food companies (Framework for Reformulation). The objective of this study was to determine whether this framework accurately reflects reformulation processes in food companies. Seventeen Dutch food companies in the bakery, meat and convenience sector were interviewed with a semi-structured topic list. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed. Interviews illustrated that there were opportunities to lower salt, sugar and saturated fat (Nutrition & Health). However, there were barriers to replacing the functionality of these ingredients (Food Technology). Most companies would like the government to push reformulation more (Legislation). Traditional meat products and luxury sweet bakery products were considered less suitable for reformulation (Consumer Perspectives). In addition, the reduction of E-numbers was considered important. The important role of the retailer is stressed by the respondents. In conclusion, all four disciplines are important in the reformulation processes in food companies. Reformulation does not only mean the reduction of salt, saturated fat and sugar for companies, but also the reduction of E-numbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reformulation and Innovation for Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we
[...] Read more.
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Advances in Physical Post-Harvest Treatments for Shelf-Life Extension of Cereal Crops
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
PDF Full-text (6264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments,
[...] Read more.
As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards. In particular, physical treatments have gained popularity making chemical additives unnecessary. Therefore, this review focuses on recent advances in physical treatments with potential applications for microbial post-harvest decontamination of cereals. The treatments discussed in this article were evaluated for their ability to inhibit spoilage microorganisms and degrade mycotoxins without compromising the grain quality. All treatments evaluated in this review have the potential to inhibit grain spoilage microorganisms. However, each method has some drawbacks, making industrial application difficult. Even under optimal processing conditions, it is unlikely that cereals can be decontaminated of all naturally occurring spoilage organisms with a single treatment. Therefore, future research should aim for the development of a combination of treatments to harness their synergistic properties and avoid grain quality deterioration. For the degradation of mycotoxins the same conclusion can be drawn. In addition, future research must investigate the fate of degraded toxins, to assess the toxicity of their respective degradation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Betaine in Cereal Grains and Grain-Based Products
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betaine is a non-essential nutrient which performs several important physiological functions in organisms. Abundant data exist to suggest that betaine has a potential for prevention of chronic diseases and that its dietary intake may contribute to overall health enhancement. Several studies have pointed
[...] Read more.
Betaine is a non-essential nutrient which performs several important physiological functions in organisms. Abundant data exist to suggest that betaine has a potential for prevention of chronic diseases and that its dietary intake may contribute to overall health enhancement. Several studies have pointed out that the betaine status of the general population is inadequate and have suggested nutritional strategies to improve dietary intake of betaine. Cereal-based food has been implicated as the major source of betaine in the Western diet. This review summarizes the results on the betaine content in various cereals and related products. Attention has been given to the betaine content in gluten-free grains and products. It also discusses the stability of betaine during processing (cooking, baking, extrusion) and possibilities to increase betaine content by fortification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study
[...] Read more.
Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Potential Health Benefits of Noni Juice: A Review of Human Intervention Studies
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are
[...] Read more.
Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for a precise understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice are. A review of published human intervention studies suggests that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation as well as systemic inflammation. Human intervention studies also indicate that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to notable antioxidant activity in noni juice, more so than other fruit juices which served as trial placebos. It is this antioxidant effect and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations as far as its general application to noni juice products; all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Function and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is
[...] Read more.
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products. Full article
Back to Top