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Foods 2018, 7(3), 28; doi:10.3390/foods7030028

Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA), Université de Toulouse, INRA, 31030 Toulouse, France
Research Platform of Environmental Science, Doctoral School of Science and Technology, Lebanese University, Campus Rafic Hariri, BP 5 Hadath-Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Rigas iela 22, Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
Département Génie Biologique, Université Paul Sabatier, IUT A, 24 rue d’Embaquès, 32000 Auch, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1086 KB, uploaded 25 February 2018]   |  


Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. View Full-Text
Keywords: caraway; cumin; bread quality; by-products; radical scavenging activity; total phenolic caraway; cumin; bread quality; by-products; radical scavenging activity; total phenolic

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sayed Ahmad, B.; Talou, T.; Straumite, E.; Sabovics, M.; Kruma, Z.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Merah, O. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour. Foods 2018, 7, 28.

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