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Foods 2016, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/foods5030058

Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg, Germany
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Academic Editor: Michael Jahncke
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
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Abstract

To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1) were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; proximate composition; minerals; fatty acids; free amino acids; citric acid; phosphates; water content aquaculture; proximate composition; minerals; fatty acids; free amino acids; citric acid; phosphates; water content
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manthey-Karl, M.; Lehmann, I.; Ostermeyer, U.; Schröder, U. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi. Foods 2016, 5, 58.

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