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Foods, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-119

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development and Characterization of Biodegradable Composite Films Based on Gelatin Derived from Beef, Pork and Fish Sources
Foods 2013, 2(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/foods2010001
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO) incorporation (55.18%) and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05) [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO) incorporation (55.18%) and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05) in the tensile strength (TS) and puncture strength (PS) of films when the concentration of gelatin increased. The mechanical properties of these films were also improved when compared with films produced without CO. Conversely, the water barrier properties of composite films decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of gelatin in composite films increased. Comparing with pure gelatin films, water and oxygen barrier properties of gelatin films decreased when manufactured with the inclusion of CO. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants
Foods 2013, 2(1), 18-31; doi:10.3390/foods2010018
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model). As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model [...] Read more.
The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model). As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm. Full article
Open AccessArticle Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time
Foods 2013, 2(1), 32-42; doi:10.3390/foods2010032
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 16 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make [...] Read more.
The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study
Foods 2013, 2(1), 43-52; doi:10.3390/foods2010043
Received: 27 December 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 29 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
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Abstract
Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The [...] Read more.
Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM), followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM). Full article
Open AccessArticle Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh
Foods 2013, 2(1), 64-75; doi:10.3390/foods2010064
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal). Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01) to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Hazard risk index (HRI) for ethion (10.12) and carbaryl (1.09) was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit
Foods 2013, 2(1), 76-82; doi:10.3390/foods2010076
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 12 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
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Abstract
Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine [...] Read more.
Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW. Full article
Open AccessArticle Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys
Foods 2013, 2(1), 83-89; doi:10.3390/foods2010083
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2013 / Accepted: 16 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
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Abstract
A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently [...] Read more.
A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49%) standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants by RP-HPLC Coupled to Diode Array Detector (DAD) and GC-MS after Silylation
Foods 2013, 2(1), 90-99; doi:10.3390/foods2010090
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The following aromatic plants of Greek origin, Origanum dictamnus (dictamus), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Mellisa officinalis L. (balm mint) and Sideritis cretica (mountain tea), were examined for the content of phenolic substances. Reversed phase HPLC coupled to diode array [...] Read more.
The following aromatic plants of Greek origin, Origanum dictamnus (dictamus), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Mellisa officinalis L. (balm mint) and Sideritis cretica (mountain tea), were examined for the content of phenolic substances. Reversed phase HPLC coupled to diode array detector (DAD) was used for the analysis of the plant extracts. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) was also used for identification of phenolic compounds after silylation. The most abundant phenolic acids were: gallic acid (1.5–2.6 mg/100 g dry sample), ferulic acid (0.34–6.9 mg/100 g dry sample) and caffeic acid (1.0–13.8 mg/100 g dry sample). (+)-Catechin and (−)-epicatechin were the main flavonoids identified in oregano and mountain tea. Quercetin was detected only in eucalyptus and mountain tea. Full article
Open AccessArticle Encapsulation of a Lactic Acid Bacteria Cell-Free Extract in Liposomes and Use in Cheddar Cheese Ripening
Foods 2013, 2(1), 100-119; doi:10.3390/foods2010100
Received: 20 January 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A concentrated form of cell free extract (CFE) derived from attenuated Lactococcus lactis supsb. lactis 303 CFE was encapsulated in liposomes prepared from two different proliposome preparations (Prolipo Duo and Prolipo S) using microfluidization. Entrapment efficiencies of 19.7 % (Prolipo S) and [...] Read more.
A concentrated form of cell free extract (CFE) derived from attenuated Lactococcus lactis supsb. lactis 303 CFE was encapsulated in liposomes prepared from two different proliposome preparations (Prolipo Duo and Prolipo S) using microfluidization. Entrapment efficiencies of 19.7 % (Prolipo S) and 14.0 % (Prolipo Duo) were achieved and the preparations mixed in the ratio 4 (Prolipo Duo):1 (Prolipo S). Cheddar cheese trials were undertaken evaluating the performance of CFE entrapped in liposomes, empty liposomes and free CFE in comparison to a control cheese without any CFE or liposomes. Identical volumes of liposome and amounts of CFE were used in triplicate trials. The inclusion of liposomes did not adversely impact on cheese composition water activity, or microbiology. Entrapment of CFE in liposomes reduced loss of CFE to the whey. No significant differences were evident in proteolysis or expressed PepX activity during ripening in comparison to the cheeses containing free CFE, empty liposomes or the control, as the liposomes did not degrade during ripening. This result highlights the potential of liposomes to minimize losses of encapsulated enzymes into the whey during cheese production but also highlights the need to optimize the hydrophobicity, zeta potential, size and composition of the liposomes to maximize their use as vectors for enzyme addition in cheese to augment ripening. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods
Foods 2013, 2(1), 53-63; doi:10.3390/foods2010053
Received: 6 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their [...] Read more.
Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions. Full article

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