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Inorganics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Three dinuclear Fe(II) triple helicates incorporating the different conformation were obtained and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Spin Crossover Properties of Three Dinulear Fe(II) Triple Helicates by Variation of the Steric Nature of the Ligand Type
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 62; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040062
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The investigation of new spin-crossover (SCO) compounds plays an important role in understanding the key design factors involved, informing the synthesis of materials for future applications in electronic and sensing devices. In this report, three bis-bidentate ligands were synthesized by Schiff base condensation
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The investigation of new spin-crossover (SCO) compounds plays an important role in understanding the key design factors involved, informing the synthesis of materials for future applications in electronic and sensing devices. In this report, three bis-bidentate ligands were synthesized by Schiff base condensation of imidazole-4-carbaldehyde with 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane (L1), 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfide (L2) and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (L3) respectively. Their dinuclear Fe(II) triple helicates were obtained by complexation with Fe(BF4)2·6H2O in acetonitrile. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the steric nature of the ligand central atom (–X–, where X = CH2, S or O) on the spin-crossover profile of the compound. The magnetic behaviours of these compounds were investigated and subsequently correlated to the structural information from single-crystal X-ray crystallographic experiments. All compounds [Fe2(L1)3](BF4)2 (1), [Fe2(L2)3](BF4)2 (2) and [Fe2(L3)3](BF4)2 (3), demonstrated approximately half-spin transitions, with T1/2 values of 155, 115 and 150 K respectively, corresponding to one high-spin (HS) and one low-spin (LS) Fe(II) centre in a [LS–HS] state at 50 K. This was also confirmed by crystallographic studies, for example, bond lengths and the octahedral distortion parameter (∑) at 100 K. The three-dimensional arrangement of the HS and LS Fe(II) centres throughout the crystal lattice was different for the three compounds, and differing extents of intermolecular interactions between BF4 counter ions and imidazole N–H were present. The three compounds displayed similar spin-transition profiles, with 2 (–S–) possessing the steepest nature. The shape of the spin transition can be altered in this manner, and this is likely due to the subtle effects that the steric nature of the central atom has on the crystal packing (and thus inter-helical Fe–Fe separation), intermolecular interactions and Fe–Fe intra-helical separations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Metal Substitution Effect on a Three-Dimensional Cyanido-Bridged Fe Spin-Crossover Network
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 63; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040063
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
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Abstract
We report the CoII-substitution effect on a cyanido-bridged three-dimensional FeII spin-crossover network, Fe2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·2H2O. A series of iron–cobalt octacyanidoniobate, (FexCo1−x)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH
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We report the CoII-substitution effect on a cyanido-bridged three-dimensional FeII spin-crossover network, Fe2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·2H2O. A series of iron–cobalt octacyanidoniobate, (FexCo1−x)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH2O, was prepared. In this series, the behavior of FeII spin-crossover changes with the CoII concentration. As the CoII concentration increases, the transition of the spin-crossover becomes gradual and the transition temperature of the spin-crossover shifts towards a lower temperature. Additionally, this series shows magnetic phase transition at a low temperature. In particular, (Fe0.21Co0.79)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH2O exhibits a Curie temperature of 12 K and a large coercive field of 3100 Oe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Cluster Structure Optimization: Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Local Heat Pulses
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 64; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040064
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Cluster structure optimization (CSO) refers to finding the globally minimal cluster structure with respect to a specific model and quality criterion, and is a computationally extraordinarily hard problem. Here we report a successful hybridization of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) with local heat pulses (LHPs).
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Cluster structure optimization (CSO) refers to finding the globally minimal cluster structure with respect to a specific model and quality criterion, and is a computationally extraordinarily hard problem. Here we report a successful hybridization of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) with local heat pulses (LHPs). We describe the algorithm’s implementation and assess its performance with hard benchmark CSO cases. EA-LHP showed superior performance compared to regular EAs. Additionally, the EA-LHP hybrid is an unbiased, general CSO algorithm requiring no system-specific solution knowledge. These are compelling arguments for a wider future use of EA-LHP in CSO. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stabilization of ZrO2 Powders via ALD of CeO2 and ZrO2
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 65; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040065
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
ZrO2 powders were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with CeO2 and ZrO2, using Ce(TMHD)4 and Zr(TMHD)4 as the precursors, in order to determine the effect of ALD films on the structure, surface area, and catalytic properties
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ZrO2 powders were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with CeO2 and ZrO2, using Ce(TMHD)4 and Zr(TMHD)4 as the precursors, in order to determine the effect of ALD films on the structure, surface area, and catalytic properties of the ZrO2. Growth rates were measured gravimetrically and found to be 0.017 nm/cycle for CeO2 and 0.031 nm/cycle for ZrO2. The addition of 20 ALD cycles of either CeO2 or ZrO2 was found to stabilize the surface area of the ZrO2 powder following calcination to 1073 K and to suppress the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition. Shrinkage of ZrO2 wafers was also suppressed by the ALD films. When used as a support for Pd in CO oxidation, the CeO2-modified materials significantly enhanced rates due to interactions between the Pd and the CeO2. Potential applications for modifying catalyst supports using ALD are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerium-based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Molecular Structure of a Cyclopentyl-Substituted Cage Hexasilsesquioxane T6 (T = cyclopentyl-SiO1.5) Starting from the Corresponding Silanetriol
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 66; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040066
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Cyclopentyl substituted silanetriol can be prepared and isolated. Its condensation yields the corresponding disiloxanetetrol as a primary condensation product. Further condensation leads to the hexameric polyhedral silsesquioxane cage T6. The latter has been mentioned in the literature before however, lacking structural data. All
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Cyclopentyl substituted silanetriol can be prepared and isolated. Its condensation yields the corresponding disiloxanetetrol as a primary condensation product. Further condensation leads to the hexameric polyhedral silsesquioxane cage T6. The latter has been mentioned in the literature before however, lacking structural data. All compounds have been characterized with multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in addition, the molecular structures have been determined in the case of the disiloxanetetrol and the hexasilsesquioxane via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4/C by Indium Doping and High Temperature Annealing
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 67; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040067
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol %) LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C) annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic
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We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol %) LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C) annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microsopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns of the nano-composites were indexed to the olivine crystal structure of LiFePO4 with space group Pnma, showing minor impurities of Fe2P and Li3PO4 due to decomposition of LiFePO4. We found that the doping of In in LiFePO4/C nanocomposites affects the amount of decomposed products, when compared to the un-doped ones treated under similar conditions. An optimum amount of Fe2P present in the In-doped samples enhances the electronic conductivity to achieve a much improved electrochemical performance. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves show a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of 700 °C annealed In-doped-LiFePO4/C sample with a discharge capacity of 142 mAh·g−1 at 1 C rate, better rate capability (~128 mAh·g−1 at 10 C rate, ~75% of the theoretical capacity) and excellent cyclic stability (96% retention after 250 cycles) compared to other samples. This enhancement in electrochemical performance is consistent with the results of our electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showing decreased charge-transfer resistance and high exchange current density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Lithium Battery Electrode Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Decomposition Products of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) with Metals Dissolved in Liquid Ammonia
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 68; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040068
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Sulfur hexafluoride is a highly chemically inert gas with several important industrial applications. It is stable against fused alkali, oxygen and ammonia, even at several hundred degrees Celsius. In this work, the reactions between metals (Li–Cs, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) dissolved in liquid
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Sulfur hexafluoride is a highly chemically inert gas with several important industrial applications. It is stable against fused alkali, oxygen and ammonia, even at several hundred degrees Celsius. In this work, the reactions between metals (Li–Cs, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) dissolved in liquid ammonia and SF6 are reported, leading to mono- or bivalent fluorides and sulfides. To this end, SF6 was passed into a cooled solution of the respective metal in liquid ammonia. The identity of the products was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The reactions could lead to a cheap and effective disposal method of the present amounts of stored SF6, for possible generation of H2S and HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Fluorides)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Surface Ceria and Ceria–Zirconia Solid Solution Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition on Al2O3
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040069
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
The properties of 20 wt % CeO2 and 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 films, deposited onto a γ-Al2O3 by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), were compared to bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and γ-Al
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The properties of 20 wt % CeO2 and 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 films, deposited onto a γ-Al2O3 by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), were compared to bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and γ-Al2O3-supported samples on which 20 wt % CeO2 or 21 wt % CeO2–ZrO2 were deposited by impregnation. Following calcination to 1073 K, the ALD-prepared catalysts showed much lower XRD peak intensities, implying that these samples existed as thin films, rather than larger crystallites. Following the addition of 1 wt % Pd to each of the supports, the ALD-prepared samples exhibited much higher rates for CO oxidation due to better interfacial contact between the Pd and ceria-containing phases. The redox properties of the ALD samples and bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 were measured by determining the oxidation state of the ceria as a function of the H2:H2O ratio using flow titration and coulometric titration. The 20 wt % CeO2 ALD film exhibited similar thermodynamics to that measured previously for a sample prepared by impregnation. However, the sample with 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 on γ-Al2O3 reduced at a much higher P O 2 and showed evidence for transition between the Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and Ce0.5Zr0.5O1.75 phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerium-based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Unique Hydrogen Desorption Properties of LiAlH4/h-BN Composites
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 71; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040071
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as an effective additive to improve the hydrogen de/absorption properties of hydrogen storage materials consisting of light elements. Herein, we report the unique hydrogen desorption properties of LiAlH4/h-BN composites, which were prepared by ball-milling. The
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Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as an effective additive to improve the hydrogen de/absorption properties of hydrogen storage materials consisting of light elements. Herein, we report the unique hydrogen desorption properties of LiAlH4/h-BN composites, which were prepared by ball-milling. The desorption profiles of the composite indicated the decrease of melting temperature of LiAlH4, the delay of desorption kinetics in the first step, and the enhancement of the kinetics in the second step, compared with milled LiAlH4. Li3AlH6 was also formed in the composite after desorption in the first step, suggesting h-BN would have a catalytic effect on the desorption kinetics of Li3AlH6. Finally, the role of h-BN on the desorption process of LiAlH4 was discussed by comparison with the desorption properties of LiAlH4/X (X = graphite, LiCl and LiI) composites, suggesting the enhancement of Li ion mobility in the LiAlH4/h-BN composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessArticle Si–H Bond Activation of a Primary Silane with a Pt(0) Complex: Synthesis and Structures of Mononuclear (Hydrido)(dihydrosilyl) Platinum(II) Complexes
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 72; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040072
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
A hydrido platinum(II) complex with a dihydrosilyl ligand, [cis-PtH(SiH2Trip)(PPh3)2] (2) was prepared by oxidative addition of an overcrowded primary silane, TripSiH3 (1, Trip = 9-triptycyl) with [Pt(η2-C2
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A hydrido platinum(II) complex with a dihydrosilyl ligand, [cis-PtH(SiH2Trip)(PPh3)2] (2) was prepared by oxidative addition of an overcrowded primary silane, TripSiH3 (1, Trip = 9-triptycyl) with [Pt(η2-C2H4)(PPh3)2] in toluene. The ligand-exchange reactions of complex 2 with free phosphine ligands resulted in the formation of a series of (hydrido)(dihydrosilyl) complexes (35). Thus, the replacement of two PPh3 ligands in 2 with a bidentate bis(phosphine) ligand such as DPPF [1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] or DCPE [1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane] gave the corresponding complexes [PtH(SiH2Trip)(L-L)] (3: L-L = dppf, 4: L-L = dcpe). In contrast, the ligand-exchange reaction of 2 with an excess amount of PMe3 in toluene quantitatively produced [PtH(SiH2Trip)(PMe3)(PPh3)] (5), where the PMe3 ligand is adopting trans to the hydrido ligand. The structures of complexes 25 were fully determined on the basis of their NMR and IR spectra, and elemental analyses. Moreover, the low-temperature X-ray crystallography of 2, 3, and 5 revealed that the platinum center has a distorted square planar environment, which is probably due to the steric requirement of the cis-coordinated phosphine ligands and the bulky 9-triptycyl group on the silicon atom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle 3-Methylindole-Based Tripodal Tetraphosphine Ruthenium Complexes in N2 Coordination and Reduction and Formic Acid Dehydrogenation
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040073
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
The ruthenium(II) complexes RuCl2L1H, RuCl2L1CF3, RuCl2L1OMe and RuCl2L2H were synthesized from [Ru(η6-benzene)Cl(μ-Cl)]2 and the corresponding tripodal tris-3-methylindolephosphine-based ligands L1H, L1CF3, L1OMe
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The ruthenium(II) complexes RuCl2L1H, RuCl2L1CF3, RuCl2L1OMe and RuCl2L2H were synthesized from [Ru(η6-benzene)Cl(μ-Cl)]2 and the corresponding tripodal tris-3-methylindolephosphine-based ligands L1H, L1CF3, L1OMe, and L2H. Stoichiometric reduction of these complexes with KC8 yielded the corresponding ruthenium(0) dinitrogen complexes. The latter complexes were studied in the N2 reduction with chlorosilanes and KC8, yielding stoichiometric amounts of the silylamines. The synthesized ruthenium(II) complexes are also active catalysts for the formic acid dehydrogenation reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 1,3-Diols from Isobutene and HCHO via Prins Condensation-Hydrolysis Using CeO2 Catalysts: Effects of Crystal Plane and Oxygen Vacancy
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 75; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040075
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
We herein report the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol from isobutene and HCHO in water via a Prins condensation-hydrolysis reaction over CeO2, which is a water-tolerant Lewis acid catalyst. The CeO2 exhibits significant catalytic activity for the reaction, giving 95% HCHO conversion
[...] Read more.
We herein report the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol from isobutene and HCHO in water via a Prins condensation-hydrolysis reaction over CeO2, which is a water-tolerant Lewis acid catalyst. The CeO2 exhibits significant catalytic activity for the reaction, giving 95% HCHO conversion and 84% 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol selectivity at 150 °C for 4 h. The crystal planes of CeO2 have a significant effect on the catalytic activity for the Prins reaction. The (110) plane shows the highest catalytic activity among the crystal planes investigated (the (100), (110), and (111) planes), due to its higher concentration of Lewis acid sites, which is in line with the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Detailed characterizations, including NH3-TPD, pyridine-adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, revealed that the concentration of Lewis acid sites is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. This study indicates that the Lewis acidity induced by oxygen vacancy can be modulated by selective synthesis of CeO2 with different morphologies, and that the Lewis acidity and oxygen vacancy play an important role in Prins condensation and hydrolysis reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerium-based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Ceria: Recent Results on Dopant-Induced Surface Phenomena
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040076
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Redox studies on dense zirconia-doped ceria pellets were carried out by thermogravimetric investigations and dilatometry. Up to 1600 K reduction parameters determined by both methods correspond to each other. At higher temperatures, however, thermogravimetry overestimates the degree of reduction since mass loss is
[...] Read more.
Redox studies on dense zirconia-doped ceria pellets were carried out by thermogravimetric investigations and dilatometry. Up to 1600 K reduction parameters determined by both methods correspond to each other. At higher temperatures, however, thermogravimetry overestimates the degree of reduction since mass loss is not only due to oxygen exsolution but also to selective evaporation of CeO2 whose vapour pressure is considerably higher than that of ZrO2. As a consequence surface segregation of zirconia occurs in (Ce,Zr)O2−δ pellets leading to a porous surface zone of Ce2Zr2O7 pyrochlore which gradually grows in thickness. Surface enrichment of zirconia is detrimental for splitting CO2 or H2O since re-oxidation temperatures of (Ce,Zr)O2−δ are known to be shifted towards lower temperatures with increasing ZrO2 content. Thus, very harsh reduction conditions should be avoided for the (Ce,Zr)O2−δ redox system. The kinetics investigations comprised the high temperature reduction step (T ≅ 1600 K) and the “low” temperature oxidation reaction with a carbon dioxide atmosphere (T ≅ 1000 K). The reduction kinetics (at around 1600 K and an oxygen activity of 7 × 10−4 in the gas phase) directly yield the (reduction) equilibrium exchange rate of oxygen in the order of 10−7 mol·O/(cm3·s) as the kinetics are surface controlled. The oxidation step at around 1000 K, however, occurs in the mixed control or in the diffusion control regime, respectively. From oxygen isotope exchange in combination with SIMS depth profiling oxygen exchange coefficients, K, and oxygen diffusivities, D, were determined for so-called equilibrium experiments as well as for non-equilibrium measurements. From the obtained values for K and D the (oxidation) equilibrium exchange rates for differently doped ceria samples were determined. Their dependency on the oxygen activity and the nature and the concentrations of a tetravalent dopant (Zr) and trivalent dopants (La, Y, Sm) could be semi-quantitatively rationalised on the basis of a master equation for the equilibrium surface exchange rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerium-based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradation of Cosmetics Products: A Computational Study of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Phthalates
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040077
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Cytochrome P450s are a broad class of enzymes in the human body with important functions for human health, which include the metabolism and detoxification of compounds in the liver. Thus, in their catalytic cycle, the P450s form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical
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Cytochrome P450s are a broad class of enzymes in the human body with important functions for human health, which include the metabolism and detoxification of compounds in the liver. Thus, in their catalytic cycle, the P450s form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical as the active species (called Compound I) that reacts with substrates through oxygen atom transfer. This work discusses the possible degradation mechanisms of phthalates by cytochrome P450s in the liver, through computational modelling, using 2-ethylhexyl-phthalate as a model substrate. Phthalates are a type of compound commonly found in the environment from cosmetics usage, but their biodegradation in the liver may lead to toxic metabolites. Experimental studies revealed a multitude of products and varying product distributions among P450 isozymes. To understand the regio- and chemoselectivity of phthalate activation by P450 isozymes, we focus here on the mechanisms of phthalate activation by Compound I leading to O-dealkylation, aliphatic hydroxylation and aromatic hydroxylation processes. We set up model complexes of Compound I with the substrate and investigated the reaction mechanisms for products using the density functional theory on models and did a molecular mechanics study on enzymatic structures. The work shows that several reaction barriers in the gas-phase are close in energy, leading to a mixture of products. However, when we tried to dock the substrate into a P450 isozyme, some of the channels were inaccessible due to unfavorable substrate positions. Product distributions are discussed under various reaction conditions and rationalized with valence bond and thermodynamic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal–Oxo Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanistic Implications for the Ni(I)-Catalyzed Kumada Cross-Coupling Reaction
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 78; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040078
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Herein we report on the cross-coupling reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide with aryl halides using the well-defined tetrahedral Ni(I) complex, [(Triphos)NiICl] (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane). In the presence of 0.5 mol % [(Triphos)NiICl], good to excellent yields (75–97%) of the respective
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Herein we report on the cross-coupling reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide with aryl halides using the well-defined tetrahedral Ni(I) complex, [(Triphos)NiICl] (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane). In the presence of 0.5 mol % [(Triphos)NiICl], good to excellent yields (75–97%) of the respective coupling products within a reaction time of only 2.5 h at room temperature were achieved. Likewise, the tripodal Ni(II)complexes [(κ2-Triphos)NiIICl2] and [(κ3-Triphos)NiIICl](X) (X = ClO4, BF4) were tested as potential pre-catalysts for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. While the Ni(II) complexes also afford the coupling products in comparable yields, mechanistic investigations by UV/Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicate a Ni(I) intermediate as the catalytically active species in the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. Based on experimental findings and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a plausible Ni(I)-catalyzed reaction mechanism for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a Dichlorodigermasilane: Double Si–Cl Activation by a Ge=Ge Unit
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 79; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040079
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Halogenated oligosilanes and oligogermanes are interesting compounds in oligosilane chemistry from the viewpoint of silicon-based-materials. Herein, it was demonstrated that a 1,2-digermacyclobutadiene derivative could work as a bis-germylene building block towards double Si–Cl activation to give a halogenated oligometallane, a bis(chlorogermyl)dichlorosilane derivative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dimerization of 1,1-Diphenylpropargyl Alcohol to a Hydroxybenzocyclobutene and Related Reactions
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 80; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040080
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Propargyl alcohol is a useful synthon in synthetic organic chemistry. We found that the ruthenium(II) complex [Cp*RuCl(diene)] (Cp* = η5-C5Me5; diene = isoprene or 1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod)) catalyzes dimerization of 1,1-diphenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (1,1-diphenylpropargyl alcohol, 1a) at room temperature
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Propargyl alcohol is a useful synthon in synthetic organic chemistry. We found that the ruthenium(II) complex [Cp*RuCl(diene)] (Cp* = η5-C5Me5; diene = isoprene or 1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod)) catalyzes dimerization of 1,1-diphenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (1,1-diphenylpropargyl alcohol, 1a) at room temperature to afford an alkylidenebenzocyclobutenyl alcohol 2a quantitatively. Meanwhile, a stoichiometric reaction of the related hydrido complex [Cp*RuH(cod)] with 1a at 50 °C led to isolation of a ruthenocene derivative 4 bearing a cyclopentadienyl ring generated by dehydrogenative trimerization of 1a. Detailed structures of 2a and 4 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The reaction mechanisms for the formation of 2a and 4 were proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermodynamic Properties and Reversible Hydrogenation of LiBH4–Mg2FeH6 Composite Materials
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 81; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040081
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
In previous studies, complex hydrides LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 have been reported to undergo simultaneous dehydrogenation when ball-milled as composite materials (1 − x)LiBH4 + xMg2FeH6. The simultaneous hydrogen release led to a
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In previous studies, complex hydrides LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 have been reported to undergo simultaneous dehydrogenation when ball-milled as composite materials (1 − x)LiBH4 + xMg2FeH6. The simultaneous hydrogen release led to a decrease of the dehydrogenation temperature by as much as 150 K when compared to that of LiBH4. It also led to the modified dehydrogenation properties of Mg2FeH6. The simultaneous dehydrogenation behavior between stoichiometric ratios of LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 is not yet understood. Therefore, in the present work, we used the molar ratio x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75, and studied the isothermal dehydrogenation processes via pressure–composition–isothermal (PCT) measurements. The results indicated that the same stoichiometric reaction occurred in all of these composite materials, and x = 0.5 was the molar ratio between LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 in the reaction. Due to the optimal composition ratio, the composite material exhibited enhanced rehydrogenation and reversibility properties: the temperature and pressure of 673 K and 20 MPa of H2, respectively, for the full rehydrogenation of x = 0.5 composite, were much lower than those required for the partial rehydrogenation of LiBH4. Moreover, the x = 0.5 composite could be reversibly hydrogenated for more than four cycles without degradation of its H2 capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessArticle Dehydrogenation of Surface-Oxidized Mixtures of 2LiBH4 + Al/Additives (TiF3 or CeO2)
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 82; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040082
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Research for suitable hydrogen storage materials is an important ongoing subject. LiBH4–Al mixtures could be attractive; however, several issues must be solved. Here, the dehydrogenation reactions of surface-oxidized 2LiBH4 + Al mixtures plus an additive (TiF3 or CeO2
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Research for suitable hydrogen storage materials is an important ongoing subject. LiBH4–Al mixtures could be attractive; however, several issues must be solved. Here, the dehydrogenation reactions of surface-oxidized 2LiBH4 + Al mixtures plus an additive (TiF3 or CeO2) at two different pressures are presented. The mixtures were produced by mechanical milling and handled under welding-grade argon. The dehydrogenation reactions were studied by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) at 400 °C and at 3 or 5 bar initial hydrogen pressure. The milled and dehydrogenated materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) The additives and the surface oxidation, promoted by the impurities in the welding-grade argon, induced a reduction in the dehydrogenation temperature and an increase in the reaction kinetics, as compared to pure (reported) LiBH4. The dehydrogenation reactions were observed to take place in two main steps, with onsets at 100 °C and 200–300 °C. The maximum released hydrogen was 9.3 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/TiF3 material, and 7.9 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 material. Formation of CeB6 after dehydrogenation of 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Reversible Lithiation of an Oxide Free Aluminum Anode by a LiBH4 Solid State Electrolyte
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 83; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040083
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy
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In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Constant current cycling demonstrated that the aluminum anode can be reversibly lithiated over multiple cycles utilizing a solid-state electrolyte. An initial capacity of 895 mAh/g was observed and is close to the theoretical capacity of aluminum. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell was consistent with the constant current cycling data and showed that the reversible lithiation/delithiation of aluminum occurs at 0.32 V and 0.38 V (vs. Li+/Li) respectively. XRD of the aluminum anode in the initial and lithiated state clearly showed the formation of a LiAl (1:1) alloy. SEM-EDS was utilized to examine the morphological changes that occur within the electrode during cycling. This work is the first example of reversible lithiation of aluminum in a solid-state cell and further emphasizes the robust nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. This demonstrates the possibility of utilizing other high capacity anode materials with a LiBH4 based solid electrolyte in all-solid-state batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessCommunication Construction of a Planar Tetrapalladium Cluster by the Reaction of Palladium(0) Bis(isocyanide) with Cyclic Tetrasilane
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 84; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040084
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
The planar tetrapalladium cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(CNtBu)4 (4) was synthesised in 86% isolated yield by the reaction of palladium(0) bis(isocyanide) Pd(CNtBu)2 with octaisopropylcyclotetrasilane (3). In the course
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The planar tetrapalladium cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(CNtBu)4 (4) was synthesised in 86% isolated yield by the reaction of palladium(0) bis(isocyanide) Pd(CNtBu)2 with octaisopropylcyclotetrasilane (3). In the course of this reaction, the palladium atoms are clustered via insertion into the Si–Si bonds of 3, followed by extrusion of one SiiPr2 moiety and reorganisation to afford 4 with a 54-electron configuration. The CNtBu ligand in 4 was found to be easily replaced by N-heterocyclic carbene (iPr2IMMe) to afford the more coordinatively unsaturated cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(iPr2IMMe)3 (5) having the planar Pd4Si3 core. On the other hand, the replacement of CNtBu with a sterically compact ligand trimethylolpropane phosphite {P(OCH2)3CEt} led to a planar tripalladium cluster Pd3{Si(iPr)2}3{P(OCH2)3CEt}3 (6) and Pd{P(OCH2)3CEt}4 in 1:1 molar ratio as products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Reactivity of Zinc Halide Complexes Containing Camphor-Derived Guanidine Ligands with Technical rac-Lactide
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 85; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040085
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Three new zinc complexes with monoamine–guanidine hybridligands have been prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, and tested in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. Initially the ligands were synthesized from camphoric acid to obtain TMGca and DMEGca and then reacted
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Three new zinc complexes with monoamine–guanidine hybridligands have been prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, and tested in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. Initially the ligands were synthesized from camphoric acid to obtain TMGca and DMEGca and then reacted with zinc(II) halides to form zinc complexes. All complexes have a distorted tetrahedral coordination. They were utilized as catalysts in the solvent-free polymerization of technical rac-lactide at 150 °C. Colorless polylactide (PLA) can be produced and after 2 h conversion up to 60% was reached. Furthermore, one zinc chlorido complex was tested with different qualities of lactide (technical and recrystallized) and with/without the addition of benzyl alcohol as a co-initiator. The kinetics were monitored by in situ FT-IR or 1H NMR spectroscopy. All kinetic measurements show first-order behavior with respect to lactide. The influence of the chiral complexes on the stereocontrol of PLA was examined. Moreover, with MALDI-ToF measurements the end-group of the obtained polymer was determined. DFT and NBO calculations give further insight into the coordination properties. All in all, these systems are robust against impurities and water in the lactide monomer and show great catalytic activity in the ROP of lactide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 Alloy with Addition of x wt % Zr (x = 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12)
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 86; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040086
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract
The effect of adding Zr on microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of BCC Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 synthesized by arc melting was studied. The microstructures of samples with Zr were multiphase with a main BCC phase and secondary Laves phases C15
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The effect of adding Zr on microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of BCC Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 synthesized by arc melting was studied. The microstructures of samples with Zr were multiphase with a main BCC phase and secondary Laves phases C15 and C14. The abundance of secondary phases increased with increasing amount of zirconium. We found that addition of Zr greatly enhanced the first hydrogenation kinetics. The addition of 4 wt % of Zr produced fast kinetics and high hydrogen storage capacity. Addition of higher amount of Zr had for effect of decreasing the hydrogen capacity. The reduction in hydrogen capacity might be due to the increased secondary phase abundance. The effect of air exposure was also studied. It was found that, for the sample with 12 wt % of Zr, exposure to the air resulted in appearance of an incubation time in the first hydrogenation and a slight reduction of hydrogen capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessArticle The Mechanism of Rh-Catalyzed Transformation of Fatty Acids to Linear Alpha olefins
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 87; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040087
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are key commodity chemicals and petrochemical intermediates that are currently produced from fossil resources. Fatty acids are the obvious renewable starting material for LAOs, which can be obtained via transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. However, even the best catalysts that have
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Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are key commodity chemicals and petrochemical intermediates that are currently produced from fossil resources. Fatty acids are the obvious renewable starting material for LAOs, which can be obtained via transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. However, even the best catalysts that have been obtained to date, which are based on palladium, are not active and stable enough for industrial use. To provide insight for design of better catalysts, we here present the first computationally derived mechanism for another attractive transition-metal for this reaction, rhodium. By comparing the calculated mechanisms and free energy profiles for the two metals, Pd and Rh, we single out important factors for a facile, low-barrier reaction and for a stable catalyst. While the olefin formation is rate limiting for both of the metals, the rate-determining intermediate for Rh is, in contrast to Pd, the starting complex, (PPh3)2Rh(CO)Cl. This complex largely draws its stability from the strength of the Rh(I)–CO bond. CO is a much less suitable ligand for the high-oxidation state Rh(III). However, for steric reasons, rhodium dissociates a bulkier triphenylphosphine and keeps the carbonyl during the oxidative addition, which is less favorable than for Pd. When compared to Pd, which dissociates two phosphine ligands at the start of the reaction, the catalytic activity of Rh also appears to be hampered by its preference for high coordination numbers. The remaining ancillary ligands leave less space for the metal to mediate the reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Structures of Enantiomerically-Pure (S)-2-(Triphenylsilyl)- and (S)-2-(Methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidinium Salts
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 88; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040088
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Silyl-substituted pyrrolidines have gained increased interest for the design of new catalyst scaffolds. The molecular structures of four enantiomerically-pure 2-silylpyrrolidinium salts are reported. The perchlorate salts of (S)-2-(triphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-1·HClO4] and (S)-2-(methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S
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Silyl-substituted pyrrolidines have gained increased interest for the design of new catalyst scaffolds. The molecular structures of four enantiomerically-pure 2-silylpyrrolidinium salts are reported. The perchlorate salts of (S)-2-(triphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-1·HClO4] and (S)-2-(methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-2·HClO4], the trifluoroacetate (S)-2·TFA, and the methanol-including hydrochloride (S)-1·HCl·MeOH were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Lewis Base Complexes of Magnesium Borohydride: Enhanced Kinetics and Product Selectivity upon Hydrogen Release
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 89; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040089
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Tetrahydofuran (THF) complexed to magnesium borohydride has been found to have a positive effect on both the reactivity and selectivity, enabling release of H2 at <200 °C and forms Mg(B10H10) with high selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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Open AccessArticle Field-Induced Single-Ion Magnet Behaviour in Two New Cobalt(II) Coordination Polymers with 2,4,6-Tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 90; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040090
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
We herein reported the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a two-dimensional coordination polymer {[CoII(TPT)2/3(H2O)4][CH3COO]2·(H2O)4}n (1) and a chain compound {[CoII(TPT)
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We herein reported the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a two-dimensional coordination polymer {[CoII(TPT)2/3(H2O)4][CH3COO]2·(H2O)4}n (1) and a chain compound {[CoII(TPT)2(CHOO)2(H2O)2]}n (2) based on the 2,4,6-Tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT) ligand. Structure analyses showed that complex 1 had a cationic hexagonal framework structure, while 2 was a neutral zig-zag chain structure with different distorted octahedral coordination environments. Magnetic measurements revealed that both complexes exhibit large easy-plane magnetic anisotropy with the zero-field splitting parameter D = 47.7 and 62.1 cm−1 for 1 and 2, respectively. This magnetic anisotropy leads to the field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behaviour. However, their magnetic dynamics are quite different; while complex 1 experienced a dominating thermally activated Orbach relaxation at the whole measured temperature region, 2 exhibited multiple relaxation pathways involving direct, Raman, and quantum tunneling (QTM) processes at low temperatures and Orbach relaxation at high temperatures. The present complexes enlarge the family of framework-based single-ion magnets (SIMs) and highlight the significance of the structural dimensionality to the final magnetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Magnets)
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Open AccessArticle The Silacyclobutene Ring: An Indicator of Triplet State Baird-Aromaticity
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 91; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040091
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Baird’s rule tells that the electron counts for aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the first ππ* triplet and singlet excited states (T1 and S1) are opposite to those in the ground state (S0). Our hypothesis is that a silacyclobutene
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Baird’s rule tells that the electron counts for aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the first ππ* triplet and singlet excited states (T1 and S1) are opposite to those in the ground state (S0). Our hypothesis is that a silacyclobutene (SCB) ring fused with a [4n]annulene will remain closed in the T1 state so as to retain T1 aromaticity of the annulene while it will ring-open when fused to a [4n + 2]annulene in order to alleviate T1 antiaromaticity. This feature should allow the SCB ring to function as an indicator for triplet state aromaticity. Quantum chemical calculations of energy and (anti)aromaticity changes along the reaction paths in the T1 state support our hypothesis. The SCB ring should indicate T1 aromaticity of [4n]annulenes by being photoinert except when fused to cyclobutadiene, where it ring-opens due to ring-strain relief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessReview Redox-Induced Aromatic C–H Bond Functionalization in Metal Complex Catalysis from the Electrochemical Point of View
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040070
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions
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This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions where catalytic cycles include cyclometalated palladium complexes (and other organopalladium key intermediates). Full article
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Open AccessReview Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 74; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040074
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from
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The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides)
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