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Inorganics 2017, 5(2), 27; doi:10.3390/inorganics5020027

Pulsed Current Electrodeposition of Silicon Thin Films Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

1
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
3
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
4
US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian M. Julien
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Lithium Battery Electrode Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4270 KB, uploaded 20 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Electrodeposition of amorphous silicon thin films on Cu substrate from organic ionic electrolyte using pulsed electrodeposition conditions has been studied. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows a drastic change in the morphology of these electrodeposited silicon thin films at different frequencies of 0, 500, 1000, and 5000 Hz studied due to the change in nucleation and the growth mechanisms. These electrodeposited films, when tested in a lithium ion battery configuration, showed improvement in stability and performance with an increase in pulse current frequency during deposition. XPS analysis showed variation in the content of Si and oxygen with the change in frequency of deposition and with the change in depth of these thin films. The presence of oxygen largely due to electrolyte decomposition during Si electrodeposition and the structural instability of these films during the first discharge–charge cycle are the primary reasons contributing to the first cycle irreversible (FIR) loss observed in the pulse electrodeposited Si–O–C thin films. Nevertheless, the silicon thin films electrodeposited at a pulse current frequency of 5000 Hz show a stable capacity of ~805 mAh·g−1 with a fade in capacity of ~0.056% capacity loss per cycle (a total loss of capacity ~246 mAh·g−1) at the end of 500 cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon; nanocomposites; Li-ion battery; pulse electrodeposition; morphology silicon; nanocomposites; Li-ion battery; pulse electrodeposition; morphology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gattu, B.; Epur, R.; Shanti, P.M.; Jampani, P.H.; Kuruba, R.; Datta, M.K.; Manivannan, A.; Kumta, P.N. Pulsed Current Electrodeposition of Silicon Thin Films Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery Applications. Inorganics 2017, 5, 27.

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