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Inorganics 2014, 2(3), 377-395; doi:10.3390/inorganics2030377
Article

Microstructural Study of IF-WS2 Failure Modes

1
, 1,2
, 3
, 1
 and 1,*
1 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Naval Postgraduate School, 700 Dryer Rd., Watkins Hall Rm. 305, Monterey, CA 93943, USA 2 Hartnell College, Salinas, CA 93901, USA 3 Navy's Weapons Survivability Laboratory (WSL), Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, CA 93555, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes)
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Abstract

This manuscript summarizes the failure mechanisms found in inorganic fullerene-type tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles treated with diverse pressure loading methods. The approaches utilized to induce failure included: the use of an ultrasonic horn, the buildup of high pressures inside a shock tube which created a shock wave that propagated and impinged in the sample, and impact with military rounds. After treatment, samples were characterized using electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface area analysis. The microstructural changes observed in the IF-WS2 particulates as a consequence of the treatments could be categorized in two distinct fracture modes. The most commonly observed was the formation of a crack at the particles surface followed by a phase transformation from the 3D cage-like structures into the 2D layered polymorphs, with subsequent agglomeration of the plate-like sheets to produce larger particle sizes. The secondary mechanism identified was the incipient delamination of IF-WS2. We encountered evidence that the IF-WS2 structure collapse initiated in all cases at the edges and vertices of the polyhedral particles, which acted as stress concentrators, independent of the load application mode or its duration.
Keywords: IF-WS2; shock absorbing structures; fracture mechanism IF-WS2; shock absorbing structures; fracture mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cook, J.; Rhyans, S.; Roncase, L.; Hobson, G.; Luhrs, C.C. Microstructural Study of IF-WS2 Failure Modes. Inorganics 2014, 2, 377-395.

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