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Photonics 2017, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/photonics4010016

Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

1
Networking and Transmission Laboratory, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista SE-16425, Sweden
2
Optics and Photonics Division, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Kista SE-16440, Sweden
3
Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract

The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman amplification; coherent communications; fiber optics communications Raman amplification; coherent communications; fiber optics communications
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pang, X.; Ozolins, O.; El-Taher, A.; Schatz, R.; Jacobsen, G.; Sergeyev, S.; Popov, S. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification. Photonics 2017, 4, 16.

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