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Photonics 2016, 3(4), 58; doi:10.3390/photonics3040058

Constant Matrix Element Approximation to Time-Resolved Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

1
Department of Physics, Georgetown University, 37th and O Sts. NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
2
Centre for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
3
Condensed Matter Theory Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract

We discuss several issues associated with employing a constant matrix element approximation for the coupling of light to multiband electrons in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). In particular, we demonstrate that the “constant matrix element approximation” —even when reasonable—only holds for specific choices of the one-electron basis, and changing to other bases, requires including nonconstant corrections to the matrix element. We also discuss some simplifying approximations, where a constant matrix element is employed in multiple bases, and the consequences of this further approximation (especially with respect to the calculated TR-ARPES signal becoming negative). We also discuss issues related to gauge invariance of the final spectra. View Full-Text
Keywords: pump/probe photoemission; time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy; constant matrix element approximation; nonequilibrium many-body physics; gauge-invariance pump/probe photoemission; time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy; constant matrix element approximation; nonequilibrium many-body physics; gauge-invariance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Freericks, J.K.; Krishnamurthy, H.R. Constant Matrix Element Approximation to Time-Resolved Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy. Photonics 2016, 3, 58.

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