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Photonics 2016, 3(3), 50; doi:10.3390/photonics3030050

Experimental Study of Light Propagation in Apple Tissues Using a Multispectral Imaging System

1
Laboratoire Arts et Métiers ParisTech Angers (LAMPA), École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers (ENSAM), 2 Boulevard du Ronceray, BP 93525, 49035 Angers Cedex 01, France
2
Ecole Supérieure d’Agricultures (ESA)-INRA, Unité de Recherche GRAPPE, Université Bretagne Loire, 55 Rue Rabelais, BP 30748, 49007 Angers Cedex, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 18 September 2016
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Abstract

This work aimed at highlighting the role played by the skin in the light propagation through the apple flesh. A multispectral Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) steady-state imaging setup based on the use of four continuous laser sources (633, 763, 784, and 852 nm) and a charge–coupled–device (CCD) camera was developed to record light diffusion inside apple tissues. Backscattering images and light reflectance profiles were studied to reveal optical features of three whole and half-cut apple varieties with and without skin. The optical absorption and scattering properties (μa, μ’s) of intact apples and peeled apples were also retrieved in reflectance mode, using an optimal sensing range of 2.8–10 mm. A relative difference for Δμa ranging from 3.4% to 24.7% was observed for intact apples with respect to peeled apples. Under the same conditions, no significant changes were noted for Δμ’s, which ranged from 0.1% to 1.7%. These findings show that the apple skin cannot be ignored when using Vis-NIR optical imaging as a non-destructive sensing means to reveal major quality attributes of fruits. View Full-Text
Keywords: multispectral imaging system; imaging and signal processing; light propagation; scattering; optical properties; apple skin and flesh multispectral imaging system; imaging and signal processing; light propagation; scattering; optical properties; apple skin and flesh
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Askoura, M.L.; Vaudelle, F.; L’Huillier, J.-P. Experimental Study of Light Propagation in Apple Tissues Using a Multispectral Imaging System. Photonics 2016, 3, 50.

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