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Photonics 2016, 3(2), 22; doi:10.3390/photonics3020022

Influence of Ethanol on Breath Acetone Measurements Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

Department of Molecular & Laser Physics, IMM, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 24 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cascade Lasers - Advances and New Applications)
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Abstract

Broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) in combination with off-axis integrated cavity enhanced spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide high molecular gas sensitivity and selectivity. We used an EC-QCL in the region of 1150–1300 cm−1 in both broadband scan mode, as well as narrow scanning mode around 1216 cm−1, respectively, for detection of acetone in exhaled breath. This wavelength region is essential for accurate determination of breath acetone due to the relative low spectral influence of other endogenous molecules like water, carbon dioxide or methane. We demonstrated that ethanol has a strong spectroscopic influence on the acetone concentration in exhaled breath, an important detail that has been overlooked so far. An ethanol correction is proposed and validated with the reference measurements from a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) for the same breath samples from ten persons. With the ethanol correction, both broadband and narrowband molecular spectroscopy represent an attractive way to accurately assess the exhaled breath acetone. The importance of considering spectroscopic ethanol influence is essential, especially for the narrowband scans, (e.g., 1216 cm−1), for which the error in determining the acetone concentrations can rise up to 39% if it is not considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs); off-axis integrated cavity enhanced spectroscopy (OA-ICOS); broadband scan; narrowband scan; exhaled acetone; ethanol external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs); off-axis integrated cavity enhanced spectroscopy (OA-ICOS); broadband scan; narrowband scan; exhaled acetone; ethanol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Centeno, R.; Mandon, J.; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M. Influence of Ethanol on Breath Acetone Measurements Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser. Photonics 2016, 3, 22.

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