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Photonics 2016, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/photonics3010003

A Single-Element Plane Grating Monochromator

Hettrick Scientific, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 19 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 11 January 2016
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Abstract

Concerted rotations of a self-focused varied line-space diffraction grating about its groove axis and surface normal define a new geometric class of monochromator. Defocusing is canceled, while the scanned wavelength is reinforced at fixed conjugate distances and horizontal deviation angle. This enables high spectral resolution over a wide band, and is of particular advantage at grazing reflection angles. A new, rigorous light-path formulation employs non-paraxial reference points to isolate the lateral ray aberrations, with those of power-sum ≤ 3 explicitly expanded for a plane grating. Each of these 14 Fermat equations agrees precisely with the value extracted from numerical raytrace simulations. An example soft X-ray design (6° deviation angle and 2 × 4 mrad aperture) attains a resolving power > 25,000 over a three octave scan range. The proposed rotation scheme is not limited to plane surfaces or monochromators, providing a new degree of freedom in optical design. Grating rotation about its third (meridional) axis may be employed to cancel vertical deflection of the diffracted beam while maintaining the above aberration correction. This enables a simpler (pure rotary) motion for the exit slit and a fixed beam direction both horizontally and vertically. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical design; grazing incidence; diffraction gratings; monochromators; geometrical aberrations; soft X-ray; varied line-spacing; VLS; in-focus; single-element optical design; grazing incidence; diffraction gratings; monochromators; geometrical aberrations; soft X-ray; varied line-spacing; VLS; in-focus; single-element
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hettrick, M.C. A Single-Element Plane Grating Monochromator. Photonics 2016, 3, 3.

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