Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Single-Fiber Reflectance Spectroscopy of Isotropic-Scattering Medium: An Analytic Perspective to the Ratio-of-Remission in Steady-State Measurements
Previous Article in Journal
Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 530-564; doi:10.3390/photonics1040530

Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Photodynamic Therapy

School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1205 KB, uploaded 9 December 2014]   |  


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used clinically for treating various diseases including malignant tumors. The main advantages of PDT over traditional cancer treatments are attributed to the localized effects of the photochemical reactions by selective illumination, which then generate reactive oxygen species and singlet oxygen molecules that lead to cell death. To date, over- or under-treatment still remains one of the major challenges in PDT due to the lack of robust real-time dose monitoring techniques. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) provides fluorescence lifetime profiles of the targeted fluorophores. It has been demonstrated that TRF offers supplementary information in drug-molecular interactions and cell responses compared to steady-state intensity acquisition. Moreover, fluorescence lifetime itself is independent of the light path; thus it overcomes the artifacts given by diffused light propagation and detection geometries. TRF in PDT is an emerging approach, and relevant studies to date are scattered. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on summarizing up-to-date TRF studies in PDT, and the effects of PDT dosimetric factors on the measured TRF parameters. From there, potential gaps for clinical translation are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-resolved fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime; photodynamic therapy (PDT); photosensitizers; dosimetry time-resolved fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime; photodynamic therapy (PDT); photosensitizers; dosimetry

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, S.-C.A.; Patterson, M.S.; Hayward, J.E.; Fang, Q. Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Photodynamic Therapy. Photonics 2014, 1, 530-564.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Photonics EISSN 2304-6732 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top