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Processes 2016, 4(4), 48; doi:10.3390/pr4040048

Online Optimization Applied to a Shockless Explosion Combustor

1
Department of Process Technology, Measurement and Control, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Fluid Dynamics and Technical Acoustics, Herman Föttinger Institute, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
3
Department of Mathematics, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dominique Bonvin
Received: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Optimization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3463 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Changing the combustion process of a gas turbine from a constant-pressure to a pressure-increasing approximate constant-volume combustion (aCVC) is one of the most promising ways to increase the efficiency of turbines in the future. In this paper, a newly proposed method to achieve such an aCVC is considered. The so-called shockless explosion combustion (SEC) uses auto-ignition and a fuel stratification to achieve a spatially homogeneous ignition. The homogeneity of the ignition can be adjusted by the mixing of fuel and air. A proper filling profile, however, also depends on changing parameters, such as temperature, that cannot be measured in detail due to the harsh conditions inside the combustion tube. Therefore, a closed-loop control is required to obtain an adequate injection profile and to reject such unknown disturbances. For this, an optimization problem is set up and a novel formulation of a discrete extremum seeking controller is presented. By approximating the cost function with a parabola, the first derivative and a Hessian matrix are estimated, allowing the controller to use Newton steps to converge to the optimal control trajectory. The controller is applied to an atmospheric test rig, where the auto-ignition process can be investigated for single ignitions. In the set-up, dimethyl ether is injected into a preheated air stream using a controlled proportional valve. Optical measurements are used to evaluate the auto-ignition process and to show that using the extremum seeking control approach, the homogeneity of the ignition process can be increased significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: shockless explosion combustion; constant volume combustion; extremum seeking control shockless explosion combustion; constant volume combustion; extremum seeking control
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schäpel, J.-S.; Reichel, T.G.; Klein, R.; Paschereit, C.O.; King, R. Online Optimization Applied to a Shockless Explosion Combustor. Processes 2016, 4, 48.

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