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Processes 2014, 2(4), 901-911; doi:10.3390/pr2040901

Kinetic Modelling for Flavonoid Recovery from Red Grape (Vitis vinifera) Pomace with Aqueous Lactic Acid

1
School of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitr. Ioakim Street, Myrina 81400, Lemnos, Greece
2
Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos Street, Athens 11855, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
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Abstract

This study was undertaken with the aim of establishing a correlation between the extraction yield in total flavonoids from red grape pomace and the extraction temperature, using 0.5% (w/v) aqueous lactic acid as the solvent system. Extraction of flavonoids was found to obey second-order kinetics, and on such a basis, the yield in total flavonoids at saturation could be very effectively determined and correlated with temperature using non-linear regression. The results indicated that the extraction yield at saturation is highly correlated with temperature, following a quadratic function. The extract obtained at 40 °C had an optimal predicted total flavonoid yield of 13.27 mg rutin equivalents per gram of dry weight, and it was further analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize its major constituents. The polyphenols detected were flavanols, flavonols and an anthocyanin. The outcome of this study outlined that temperatures above 40 °C are rather unfavorable for flavonoid extraction from red grape pomace, as suggested by the model established through kinetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: extraction kinetics; flavonoids; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; red grape pomace extraction kinetics; flavonoids; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; red grape pomace
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tzima, K.; Kallithraka, S.; Kotseridis, Y.; Makris, D.P. Kinetic Modelling for Flavonoid Recovery from Red Grape (Vitis vinifera) Pomace with Aqueous Lactic Acid. Processes 2014, 2, 901-911.

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