- freely available
Processes 2013, 1(1), 12-29; doi:10.3390/pr1010012
Published: 16 May 2013
Abstract: In this paper we present the analogous electrical model for analyzing and determining the precise time dependence of concentrations in general first and zero order chemical reactions. In addition, the applicability of this analogous electrical model for investigating the optical and bio chemical processes is also presented. By constructing the proper analogous electrical circuit experimentally or with the help of special electrical software, the time behavior of the analyzed parameter even for extremely complicated processes can be obtained.
The kinetics of chemical reactions is usually described by a set of differential equations where the rate of the reaction is a function of concentration. The general form is defined by :
In this paper, we present how a voltage can be used as analogous, among other for analyzing the concentration of chemical kinetic reactions either by building a compatible electrical circuit and measuring its output voltage time behavior or by using special electrical software . By that, one may know the time behavior of the concentration, at the equivalent chemical kinetics reaction. A simulation tool such as PSpice software offers a friendly interface in which one may choose different electrical elements (i.e., power/current sources, dependent sources, resistors and capacitors) and drop them along the interface, while properly connecting them to each other. Then, the values of each electrical element in the circuit should be defined. Finally, voltage/current probes should be placed at points of interest along the circuit, whereas the simulation results will appear in a graph indicating the voltage/current as a function of time at all indicated probes.
In addition, the analogous electrical model can be adapted also to other fields such as the rate equation of atoms concentrations in laser as well as to investigate the time dependence of concentration in biological and biochemical problems which are usually very difficult issue to handle. In order to solve those problems a steady state assumption must be used [9,10]. Applying the suggested model, for this type of reactions will generate the time dependence of the concentrations without any assumptions. Please note that the proposed analogous electrical model is linear and simple and thus it is suitable for analyzing zero or first orders chemical kinetic reactions.
Moreover, If a scientist would like to investigate a physical or chemical processes whose parameters are unknown, he can build an analogous electrical circuit and study the output of this circuit by changing the value of one of its components (as a resistor). The output voltage (which is analogous to the examined parameter) will be obtained as fast as the speed of light. On the other hand, the scientist may use the “hardware solution” of the analogous electrical model in order to either learn about the behavior of differential equations having one or more symbolic parameters (i.e., one or more of the process parameters are unknown) or to avoid the computational cost caused by solving complicated equations. In Section 2 we present the simulation modeling of the analogous electrical model, while in Section 3 we present the results and discussions. The paper is concluded in Section 4.
2. Simulation Modeling
In this section, we present the analogous quantities of the electrical model related to the chemical kinetic equations. The solution of the electrical circuit is achieved either by proper electrical simulation software or by building the circuit experimentally and measuring its output. This procedure provides a precise solution of the material concentrations as a function of time in the examined chemical reaction. The proposed analogous model, described by Equations (2–6) defines the chemical components (i.e., left side of the equations) versus its analogous electrical elements (i.e., right side of the equations) is as following:
At first, we should examine the consistency of this analogous electrical model where:
By applying the analogous model one may derive:
And this corresponds to the basic relation of a capacitor. Another example for the consistency of this model is:
This relation equals to the definition of an electrical current. By applying the model one obtains that:
Since V0 is a constant, this relation can be rewritten as:
Indeed this is the definition of the reaction’s velocity. Thus, it may be concluded that chemical kinetic reactions can be represented by a simple capacitor–resistor circuit, which is very simple to solve. By measuring or calculating a certain voltage over an electrical parameter, one may know the behavior of the materials concentration as a function of time at the required examined chemical component.
Figure 1 presents the analogous model for the most general first order reactions (i.e., reactions whose differential equation is linear). The analogous circuit should be drawn according to the following rules:
For each chemical element a different analogous circuit should be drawn.
The circuit is drawn only according to the chemical reaction equations.
First a capacitor is drawn. The voltage upon this capacitor (VC) will be analogous to the concentration of the certain element.
Each arrow getting out of this element in its chemical reaction equation will be represented by a resistance in parallel to the capacitor. This is because each resistance is drawing current from the capacitor, an effect that is analogous to the “chemical current drawing”, i.e., the decomposition of one element and the creation of a new one. The value of each such resistance is .
Each arrow pointing toward our element will correspond to a controlled current source, parallel to the resistance and the capacitor. Each current source like this will provide current to the capacitor, a phenomenon that is analogous to “chemical reaction” supplied by the decomposing element for the creation of a new element. The value of the current will be kiVi which is written in the base of this arrow while pointing toward the new element.
In Figure 2 we present the analogous electrical circuit corresponds to the most general first order chemical reaction shown in Figure 1. Figure 2a presents the analogous electrical model for the chemical reaction of element X1, while Figure 2b,c present the analogous electrical model for the chemical reactions of elements X2 and X3, respectively. Please note, that the symbol of the current source represents a controlled current source. This current source is proportional to a voltage applied at different branch along the circuit.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Chemical Kinetics Reactions
In order to substantiate the theory, we examined the applicability of the proposed method in the most common chemical reactions based on the analogous relations presented by Equations (2–6). Figure 3 shows the analogous electrical circuit corresponds to the zero order chemical kinetic reaction.
The electrical solution for this circuit is:
According to the dimensional analysis of the analogous model, the dimensions of k and are compatible. In addition, since the units of k and v are the same and equal to the chemical reaction velocity (i.e., concentration/time).
In Figure 4 we present the analogous electrical circuit corresponds to the first order reactions.
The solution of this electrical circuit is:
Which is exactly the solution for the first order reaction that equals to:
Figure 5 presents the analogous electrical circuit corresponds to the reversible reactions.
Where, Vin is analogous to the initial concentrations of A and B.
The differential equation describes the electrical circuit of Figure 5 is:
Using the analogous table one may see that:
Thus, Equation (18) is exactly identical to the differential equation of the reversible chemical reaction and therefore the analogous solution is identical as well. Thus the solution is:
Therefore, the equilibrium constant in this case is equal to:
From Equations (21) and (22) for t→ ∞ one may get:
Thus, the equilibrium constant converges to the analogous constant of the electric circuit. The voltages of VB and VC represent the analogous time behavior for the concentration of material B ([B]) and A ([A]), respectively. One may see, that this circuit represents a more generalized case than the previous one. For the case where Rb→ ∞ (i.e., for kb = 0, the reaction becomes ) and there is a complete converges to the first order reaction (as seen in the previous model shown in Figure 4).
A triple consecutive reaction described by has been chosen. The reaction constants used in the simulations are: kb = 0.1 [min−1], kc = 0.05 [min−1], [A]0 = 1, [B]0 = 0, [C]0 = 0. Figure 6 shows the analogous electrical circuit used for this reaction. VA, VB and VC are the analogous voltages of concentrations [A], [B] and [C], respectively. The circuit is designed according to Figure 1, Figure 2. The output of the electrical simulation software is shown in Figure 7. The solid line presents the concentration of element A, while the dashed and the dotted lines present the concentrations of elements, B and C, respectively. According to , one may see the complete compatibility between the desired output and simulation results.
The given data is related to the total pressure dependence upon time and since the reaction takes place in a vapor phase one may apply the ideal gas law:
The rate constant k was adjusted in the electrical circuit in order to obtain compatibility with experimental reference data. The constant that gave good compatibility was k = 0.0123 [min−1], which is indeed the correct rate constant of this reaction. Figure 8 shows the compatibility between the experimental reference data and the measured analogous output (i.e., voltage) related to the adjusted rate constant. The experimental data and the measured voltage were drawn in solid and dashed lines, respectively.
3.2. Opto-Chemical Analysis
The analogous electrical model for measuring and calculating the precise time behavior of concentration in general chemical reaction has been shown in Section 2 and Section 3.1. Nonetheless, the suggested model can be extended for investigation of optical and bio chemical processes.
The rate of the induced emission or absorption influenced by the power of the radiation10 can be described by:
In the investigated example, a pressure broadening is assumed and thus g(υ − υo) is:
This model is applied on a four level laser configuration as illustrated in Figure 9.
Where R is pumping rate of the laser. The material is illuminated with monochromatic radiation with frequency close to υ32 = υ3 − υ2 and thus the induced emission and absorption occurs between the second and the third energy levels. The rate equations9 are as follows:
Figure 10 shows the analogous electrical circuit of a four level laser configuration.
3.3. Bio Chemical Applications
3.3.1. Bio Chemical Analysis of Kinetics of Cell’s Membrane
In this section, we analyzed the time behavior of concentrations flowing through a membrane. The definition of flux, J is:
The flux coming from diffusion:
We will assume that the concentration of the material is changed linearly between the two sides of the membrane as illustrated in Figure 11, thus:
The analyzed case is a membrane separating between two cells, whereas each cell contains different concentrations of NaCl. We will denote the concentration of Na and Cl in the left cell as [Na+]1 and [Cl−]1, respectively and [Na+]2 and [Cl−]2 for the right side, respectively. In our system, we chose the interesting case where only the Na can penetrate the membrane and the Cl cannot. Due to the diffusion, atoms of Na will penetrate the membrane and electrical field will develop. Eventually this field will stop the diffusion potential and the membrane will be charged with electrical charge according to the law of Gauss. Thus, producing an electrical field of:
With our assumptions one may write the following set of equations:
The material conservations law is:
As shown before, the flux coming from the electrical field is proportional to the multiplication between the electrical field and the concentration. The concentration of [Na+]2 was taken since the right side of the membrane will be occupied only by Na+ and the left side by Cl−. No Na+ will be near the membrane’s left side due to the rejection of the electrical field. Because of this reason, Cl− appears at the membrane’s right side. Equations (47) and (48) are being easily modified according to the analogous electrical model. Thus, the analogous electrical circuits can be illustrated according to Figure 12. All the capacitors capacity is Vo.
If the membrane is made out of metal, the equations become much simpler, since no electric potential exists between the two cells:
The conservation of material:
The analogous circuit for this case is illustrated in Figure 13.
3.3.2. Osmosis Kinetics
In this case, we investigate an osmosis system in which the intermediate membrane is penetrable only for water. The schematic sketch of the system is illustrated in Figure 14.
Since in the left cell (i.e., cell number 1) there is only water . Thus, Using
One may write
Now, we shall explore the pressure difference between the two cells:
The obtained heights are thus:
And the flux equations are:
Those equations can convert into the electrical circuits according to the aforementioned analogous electrical model. The equivalent circuits are illustrated in Figure 15.
Note that the capacitor whose voltage is analogous to the concentration has the capacity of V2, while the capacitor whose voltage is analogous to the concentration has the capacity of V1.
In this paper, we have presented the analogous electrical model for analyzing and determining the time dependence of variety of applications in the fields of chemistry, biology, bio-chemistry and optics. The main advantage of this analogous model is that it makes easier to investigate chemical or physical processes whose parameters are unknown, by applying the proper analogous electrical circuit. The latter allows one to study the output of this circuit by changing the value of one of its components (i.e., a resistor). In addition, the analogous electrical system can be synthesized with the help of several software packages, which were originally written for electrical engineering applications. Our duality model can open a window for such design techniques in many fields instead of dealing directly with differential equations. The output voltage (which is analogous to the analyzed parameter) will be obtained as fast as the speed of light. The analogous model for the chemical reactions, opto-chemical analysis and biochemical applications were demonstrated and discussed.
- Bamford, C.H.; Tipper, C.F.H. Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics; Elsevier: New York, NY, USA, 1969; Volume 2. [Google Scholar]
- Heckert, W.; Mack, E. The Thermal decomposition of gaseous ethylene oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1929, 51, 2706–2717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Palani, S. Control. System Engineering; Tata McGraw-Hill: Noida, India, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Kamlesh, M.T.; Wood, J.H.; Mikulecky, D.C. Dynamic simulation of pharmacokinetic systems using the electrical circuit analysis program SPICE2. Comput. Progr. Biomed. 1982, 15, 61–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- D’Azzo, J.J.; Houpis, C.H.; Sheldon, S.N. Linear Control. System Analysis and Design; CRC: New York, NY, USA, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Wang, C.; Nehrir, M.H.; Shaw, S.R. Dynamic models and model validation for PEM fuel cells using electrical circuits, Energy Conversion. IEEE Trans. 2005, 20, 442–451. [Google Scholar]
- Fletcher, S. An electrical model circuit that reproduces the behaviour of conducting polymer electrodes in electrolyte solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1992, 337, 127–145. [Google Scholar]
- User Manual for PSpice software. Available online: http://www.cadence.com/products/orcad/pspice_simulation/pages/default.aspx (accessed on 20 August 2012).
- Siegman, A.E. Lasers; University Science Books: Sausalito, CA, USA, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- Stryer, L. Biochemistry, 4th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, USA, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Sheeler, P.; Bianchi, D.E. Cell Biology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: New York, NY, USA, 1987. [Google Scholar]
- Alberty, R.A.; Silbey, J.R. Physical Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1992. [Google Scholar]
© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).