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Chromatography, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 141-292

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Surface Characterization of Some Novel Bonded Phase Packing Materials for HPLC Columns Using MAS-NMR Spectroscopy
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 141-155; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020141
Received: 21 December 2014 / Revised: 20 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and
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Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and 13C nuclei. These packing materials were: Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica, hybrid packing materials XTerra MS C18, and XBridge Prep. C18. The spectra obtained using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) on the Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica show the surface to be densely populated with hydride groups (Si-H), with a relative surface coverage exceeding 80%. The hybrid packing materials XTerra and XBridge gave spectra that reveal the silicon atoms to be bonded to organic moieties embedded in the molecular structure of these materials with over 90% of the alkyl silicon atoms found within the completely condensed silicon environments. The hydrolytic stability of these materials were investigated in acidic aqueous solutions at pHs of 7.0 and 3.0, and it was found that while the samples of XTerra and XBridge were not affected by hydrolysis at this pH range, the sample of Cogent lost a significant proportion of its Si-H groups after five days of treatment in acidic aqueous solution. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Evaluation of Magnetic Polymethacrylate-based Microspheres Used for Solid Phase DNA Micro-Extraction
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 156-166; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020156
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using magnetic particles as a solid-phase extraction system is the most frequently used micro-technique for DNA isolation. Particles with a complete covering of magnetic cores by a polymer are hence preferred. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for
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Using magnetic particles as a solid-phase extraction system is the most frequently used micro-technique for DNA isolation. Particles with a complete covering of magnetic cores by a polymer are hence preferred. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for the evaluation of the polymer coating efficiency of hydrophilic magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with/without carboxyl groups. The inhibition effect of magnetic microspheres was identified by the shift in Cq values (ΔCq) after the addition of different amounts of microspheres to PCR mixtures. With the increase of microsphere concentrations, the shift in Cq values to higher values was usually observed. P(HEMA-co-GMA) microspheres containing carboxyl groups extinguished the fluorescence at concentrations over 2 mg mL−1 in a PCR mixture without any influence on the synthesis of PCR products. No PCR products (inhibition of DNA amplification) were detected in the presence of more than 0.8 mg mL−1 in the PCR mixture of PGMA microspheres. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the determination of the surface morphology of the microspheres. The microspheres were spherical, and their surface was non-porous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
Open AccessArticle A Hyphenated Technique based on High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for Determining Neutral Sphingolipids: A Proof of Concept
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 167-187; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020167
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hyphenated HPTLC has been used to analyze several neutral sphingolipids acting as lysosomal storage disease (LSD) biomarkers. Automated multiple development (AMD) provides separation of lipid peaks, which are detected and quantified using fluorescence detection by intensity changes (FDIC) after primuline post-impregnation. A final
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Hyphenated HPTLC has been used to analyze several neutral sphingolipids acting as lysosomal storage disease (LSD) biomarkers. Automated multiple development (AMD) provides separation of lipid peaks, which are detected and quantified using fluorescence detection by intensity changes (FDIC) after primuline post-impregnation. A final online transfer to a mass spectrometer by means of an elution-based interface allows their identification using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI).Given that the increases in fluorescent emission detected by FDIC are produced by non-specific, electrostatic interactions between the primuline and hydrocarbon chains in the ceramide backbones of sphingolipids, it is a non-destructive detection technique, allowing the precise location and transfer of biomarker peaks to a mass spectrometer using an elution interface. By using primuline as a fluorophore, the technique is also compatible with ESI-APCI and does not interfere with the MS of sphingolipids. APCI provides useful and complementary structural information to the ESI for sphingolipid identification. Moreover, FDIC emission can be used for quantitative purposes. Results include the determination of sphingomyelin (SM) in human-plasma samples (RSD < 6%) by means of a standard addition method with non-linear calibration, and the identification of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in the plasma of a Fabry patient. Only one HPTLC plate is needed to perform the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Thin-Layer Chromatography)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 188-194; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020188
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG) at
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The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG) at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3) mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Thin-Layer Chromatography)
Open AccessCommunication Fast Chromatographic Method for Explosive Profiling
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 213-224; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020213
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the
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Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the fastest and easiest ways to achieve this task. However, explosive chemicals have low volatility making their detection challenging. In this research, we developed and evaluated fast chromatographic methods to improve the characterization of volatile signatures from explosives samples. The headspace of explosives was sampled with solid phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME). Following this step, classical gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) were used for analysis. A fast GC approach allows the elution temperature of each analyte to be decreased, resulting in decreased thermal degradation of sensitive compounds (e.g., nitro explosives). Using fast GC×GC, the limit of detection is further decreased based on the cryo-focusing effect of the modulator. Sampling of explosives and chromatographic separation were optimized, and the methods then applied to commercial explosives samples. Implementation of fast GC methods will be valuable in the future for defense and security forensics applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Rapid Separation of Elemental Species by Fast Multicapillary Gas Chromatography with Multichannel Optical Spectrometry Detection following Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 239-252; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020239
Received: 28 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
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Abstract
A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on
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A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber placed in the headspace over the sample for 25 min. The ethylated species are then completely separated and selectively quantified within 25 s under isothermal conditions. A new miniaturized speciation analyzer has been constructed and evaluated. The system consists of a GC injection port and a lab-made miniaturized GC unit directly coupled with miniaturized plasma excitation source. The emitted light is transferred via optical fiber and registered with a miniaturized charged coupled device (CCD) based spectrometer. Working parameters for multicapillary column gas chromatography with atomic emission detector, including carrier gas flow rate, desorption temperature, and GC column temperature, were optimized to achieve good separation of analytes. Basic investigations of the fundamental properties of 5 cm-long multicapillary column, to evaluate its potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. The adaptation of the technique for use with a SPME system and with a multichannel element-selective plasma-emission detector is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
Open AccessCommunication Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 265-276; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020265
Received: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) induces soybean (Glycine max) leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we
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Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) induces soybean (Glycine max) leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1) determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2) use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA), benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Biochemical Screening Methods for Volatile and Unstable Sesquiterpenoids Using HS-SPME-GC-MS
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 277-292; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020277
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
HS-SPME-GC-MS has been suggested as a fast and robust analytical platform for the product characterization of sesquiterpene synthases. The choice of fiber and injection temperature can have a significant effect on the observed product profile, due to the chemical rearrangements that can occur
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HS-SPME-GC-MS has been suggested as a fast and robust analytical platform for the product characterization of sesquiterpene synthases. The choice of fiber and injection temperature can have a significant effect on the observed product profile, due to the chemical rearrangements that can occur on the fiber material. Here we present a systematic study on the effects of fiber choice and injection port temperature on the observed sesquiterpenoid profile of four sesquiterpene synthases expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We found that the absorbent material PDMS was much less likely to support acid-induced rearrangement of sesquiterpenoids when compared to the adsorbent materials PDMS/DVB, PDMS/CAR, and PDMS/CAR/DVB. Furthermore, utilizing an injection port temperature at 160 °C almost eliminated the inherent thermal instability of germacrene sesquiterpenoids. Thus, for fast screening of sesquiterpene synthases, the results suggest that PDMS fibers and an injection temperature of 160 °C provide a fast and reproducible HS-SPME GC-MS method when using H2 as carrier gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 195-212; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020195
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well
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Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monolithic Columns in Separation Sciences)
Open AccessReview TLC-Direct Bioautography as a High Throughput Method for Detection of Antimicrobials in Plants
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 225-238; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020225
Received: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The richness of bioactive compounds in plant materials encourages continuous development of separation methods and bioassays for their isolation and identification. Thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography links separation on the adsorbent layer with biological tests performed directly on it. Therefore, the method is very convenient
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The richness of bioactive compounds in plant materials encourages continuous development of separation methods and bioassays for their isolation and identification. Thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography links separation on the adsorbent layer with biological tests performed directly on it. Therefore, the method is very convenient for searching plant constituents with biological activity, such as antibiotics. Test bacteria grow directly on a plate surface excluding places where antibacterials are located. They can be detected with reagents converted by living bacteria. TLC-DB is a high throughput method enabling analyses of many samples in parallel and the comparison of their activity. Both screening and semi-quantitative analysis is possible. The targeted compounds can be identified using spectroscopic methods, mostly mass spectrometry, that can be performed directly on a TLC plate. This paper discusses all above mentioned aspects of TLC-DB, illustrating them with literature, schemes and our own results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Thin-Layer Chromatography)

Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note Screening and Identification of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS
Chromatography 2015, 2(2), 253-264; doi:10.3390/chromatography2020253
Received: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 25 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma) and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and
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Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma) and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the wide availability of kratom on the Internet and in the streets has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of misuse. With the increasing popularity of kratom, efficient protocols are needed to detect kratom use. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of kratom compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in human urine has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The chromatographic system employed a 2.6-μm 100 mm × 2.1 mm phenyl-hexyl analytical column and gradient elution with a 0.4-mL/min flow rate of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used as the detector for data acquisition. The analyst was the quantification software. The established method demonstrated linearity of >0.99 for both analytes, and low detection limits were obtained down to 0.002581 ng/mL for mitragynine and 0.06910 ng/mL for 7-hydroxymitragynine. The validated method has been utilized for clinical analysis of urine for the purpose of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine detection. Full article

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