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Children, Volume 5, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Children who live with life-threatening illness face extraordinary challenges. Pediatric palliative [...] Read more.
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Research

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Open AccessArticle From the Child’s Word to Clinical Intervention: Novel, New, and Innovative Approaches to Symptoms in Pediatric Palliative Care
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Despite vast improvements in disease-based treatments, many children live with life-threatening disorders that cause distressing symptoms. These symptoms can be difficult to comprehensively assess and manage. Yet, frequent and accurate symptom reporting and expert treatment is critical to preserving a patient’s physical, psychological,
[...] Read more.
Despite vast improvements in disease-based treatments, many children live with life-threatening disorders that cause distressing symptoms. These symptoms can be difficult to comprehensively assess and manage. Yet, frequent and accurate symptom reporting and expert treatment is critical to preserving a patient’s physical, psychological, emotional, social, and existential heath. We describe emerging methods of symptom and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) assessment through patient-reported outcomes (PROs) tools now used in clinical practice and novel research studies. Computer-based and mobile apps can facilitate assessment of symptoms and HRQOL. These technologies can be used alone or combined with therapeutic strategies to improve symptoms and coping skills. We review technological advancements, including mobile apps and toys, that allow improved symptom reporting and management. Lastly, we explore the value of a pediatric palliative care interdisciplinary team and their role in assessing and managing distressing symptoms and minimizing suffering in both the child and family. These methods and tools highlight the way that novel, new, and innovative approaches to symptom assessment and management are changing the way that pediatrics and pediatric palliative care will be practiced in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Palliative Care)
Open AccessArticle Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and
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Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation) were present in any combination. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reliability and Validity of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ) in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Persian Version
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ) in the Iranian context. In total, 332 parents (20.2% fathers and 79.8% mothers) of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ) in the Iranian context. In total, 332 parents (20.2% fathers and 79.8% mothers) of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) with an average age of 12.33 years (min 7.08 to max 18.08) from three provinces in Iran participated in the study. The original version of the questionnaire was translated and back-translated. Confirmatory construct validity was assessed by factor analysis and reliability was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha (N = 332) and after two weeks’ test–retest reliability (n = 51) using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Eleven questions were dropped as they did not fit well into domains in the Persian version (p > 0.05). Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient in all domains and overall were acceptable (higher than 0.70) and significant (p > 0.05). The Persian version of the ECEQ is suitable for assessing the needs and availability of environmental factors and is reliable and valid for children with CP, as reported by their parents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ponseti Technique for the Management of Congenital Talipes Equinovarus in a Rural Set-Up in India: Experience of 356 Patients
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is a complex congenital deformity of the foot that, left untreated, can limit a person’s mobility by making it difficult and painful to walk. Worldwide, 80% of children born with clubfoot are in low- and
[...] Read more.
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is a complex congenital deformity of the foot that, left untreated, can limit a person’s mobility by making it difficult and painful to walk. Worldwide, 80% of children born with clubfoot are in low- and middle-income countries. The management of clubfoot has a long history. Non-operative management did not become popular, as an increasing number of orthopaedists started leaning towards surgical treatment. The late Dr. Ignacio Ponseti developed a method of clubfoot correction that successfully realigns clubfoot in infants without extensive and major surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the functional outcome of CTEV management by the Ponseti technique, to study the severity of CTEV deformity using the Pirani score, and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the technique. A total of 356 cases with 402 feet with CTEV were treated by the Ponseti method. The average age of the children and the number of casts applied before full correction were 4.03 months and 6.91, respectively. There was a good functional outcome in 95.45% of cases (score > 30) at the last follow up. The management of CTEV by the Ponseti technique provides a good functional and cosmetic outcome. In a developing country like India, this technique is a safe, easy, economical method of clubfoot management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Effect of Toothbrushing Education Via Video, Lecture and Pamphlet on the Dental Plaque Index of 12-Year-Old Children
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different modes of toothbrushing education (lecture, video and pamphlet) on the dental plaque index (PI) of adolescents. The cluster randomized intervention was performed on 128 participants aged 12 years, who were allocated
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different modes of toothbrushing education (lecture, video and pamphlet) on the dental plaque index (PI) of adolescents. The cluster randomized intervention was performed on 128 participants aged 12 years, who were allocated into four groups based on the type of intervention. Group 1: no intervention; and groups 2, 3, 4: education via lecture, video, and pamphlet, respectively (n = 32). Their plaque index was measured at the baseline, 24 h and two months later. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, independent and paired t-test. The plaque indices of groups 2, 3, 4 at 24 h (p values < 0.001) and two months (p values < 0.001) showed a significant reduction when compared to the baseline. The lowest PI score was observed in the pamphlet, video and lecture groups at 24 h, respectively. After 2 months, the lowest score of PI was measured in lecture, video and pamphlet groups, respectively; however, these differences were non-significant. Therefore, toothbrushing education via lecture, video and pamphlet reduced the dental plaque index with the same effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Irritability is Common and is Related to Poorer Psychosocial Outcomes in Youth with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders (FAPD)
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with increased emotional problems which, in turn, exacerbate functional impairment. However, irritability, which relates both to internalizing and externalizing problems, has not been specifically examined in these youths. Irritability may be common and adversely impact functioning
[...] Read more.
Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with increased emotional problems which, in turn, exacerbate functional impairment. However, irritability, which relates both to internalizing and externalizing problems, has not been specifically examined in these youths. Irritability may be common and adversely impact functioning in pediatric FAPD, particularly for males who are more likely to experience such symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between irritability and psychosocial and pain-related impairment in youth with FAPD. Data were gathered as part of a larger study examining a psychological treatment for youth with FAPD and were compared to previously published data on irritability in healthy controls and in youth with severe emotional dysregulation. For the current study, participants (ages 9–14) with FAPD and caregivers completed measures of child irritability, pain-related and psychosocial functioning, and parent functioning. Pearson correlations revealed significant positive associations between irritability and anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and caregiver distress. Results also indicated that parents reported significantly greater irritability in males, but males and females reported similar rates of irritability. Gender moderated the relationship between child-report of irritability and anxiety only. Future research may include tailoring of behavioral intervention approaches for pediatric FAPD to specifically target symptoms of irritability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and
[...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR) curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents (N = 203), and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Practice)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Children
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the syndrome of elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children. PH is associated with a wide variety of potential underlying causes, including cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic and rheumatologic abnormalities. Regardless of the
[...] Read more.
Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the syndrome of elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children. PH is associated with a wide variety of potential underlying causes, including cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic and rheumatologic abnormalities. Regardless of the cause, for many patients the natural history of PH involves progressive elevation in pulmonary arterial resistance and pressure, right ventricular dysfunction, and eventually heart failure. In recent years, a number of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapies have become available to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve outcome. A growing body of evidence in both the adult and pediatric literature demonstrates enhanced quality of life, functional status, and survival among treated patients. This review provides a description of select etiologies of PH seen in pediatrics and an update on the most recent data pertaining to evaluation and management of children with PH/PAH. The available evidence for specific classes of PAH-targeted therapies in pediatrics is additionally discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trend in Pediatric Cardiology: Pulmonary Hypertension)
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Open AccessReview The Nuts and Bolts of Food Immunotherapy: The Future of Food Allergy
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Food allergies are on the rise and have a major impact on the quality of life of the food allergic child and their family. Currently, the mainstream treatment for food allergies is strict avoidance and elimination of the allergenic food(s) from the patient’s
[...] Read more.
Food allergies are on the rise and have a major impact on the quality of life of the food allergic child and their family. Currently, the mainstream treatment for food allergies is strict avoidance and elimination of the allergenic food(s) from the patient’s diet in order to prevent an allergic reaction. However, recent advances in research have presented new therapeutic options for food allergic patients that are potentially becoming promising alternatives to traditional treatment. Food immunotherapy is the most popular of these new emerging interventions and has been studied intensively over the last decade for various foods. In this review, we discuss this exciting new development that is aspiring to become part of the mainstream therapy for food allergy. Full article
Open AccessReview Association of Place of Residence and Under-Five Mortality in Middle- and Low-Income Countries: A Meta-Analysis
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This review evaluated the association of place of residence (urban/rural) and under-five mortality in middle- and low-income countries. Both English and Spanish language studies conducted during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period (1990 to 2015) were reviewed. Twenty-six cross-sectional studies, all in the
[...] Read more.
This review evaluated the association of place of residence (urban/rural) and under-five mortality in middle- and low-income countries. Both English and Spanish language studies conducted during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period (1990 to 2015) were reviewed. Twenty-six cross-sectional studies, all in the English language, were selected for further review. Published data were used for this analysis. A funnel plot was produced to ascertain the presence of publication bias. The combined relative risk for under-five mortality was estimated using a random-effects model and a meta-regression was conducted on 15 of the 26 studies. The studies had a combined effect size of 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.27–1.67). The results of the meta-regression showed a positive association between the relative risk and the percentage of the rural population for the various regions/countries. The coefficient for the variable rural population percentage was 0.007, indicating that for every one percent increase in the rural population percentage, there was a 0.007 increase in the relative risk for under-five mortality. However, this was not significant (p-value = 0.3). Rural disadvantage persists in middle- and low-income countries. This is important to evaluate policies and programmes designed to remove the gap in under-five mortality rates between urban and rural areas. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Children’s Experience of Symptoms: Narratives through Words and Images
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Children who live with a complex chronic or life-threatening illness face extraordinary challenges. Whether they are receiving disease-oriented treatment (aimed at potential cure or prolongation of life) or palliative treatment—or both concurrently—our challenge is to enhance their comfort and minimize their distress. Symptom
[...] Read more.
Children who live with a complex chronic or life-threatening illness face extraordinary challenges. Whether they are receiving disease-oriented treatment (aimed at potential cure or prolongation of life) or palliative treatment—or both concurrently—our challenge is to enhance their comfort and minimize their distress. Symptom management is thus a critical component of pediatric palliative care. Symptoms may be either physical or psychological in nature (or a confluence of both) and their effective management has a direct impact on the child’s quality of life. This article provides an integrative overview of children’s experience of selected physical and psychological symptoms, as expressed through their words and images. Understanding their perspectives is an essential component in the design and provision of optimal symptom management. Included, as well, are examples from siblings—a reminder of the profound impact of illness on these children who also “live” the experience, albeit in a different way. The symptoms that are described are pain, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, weakness, seizures, hair loss, depression, and anxiety. Although psychological symptoms are often inextricable from the physical, they may also present independently as part of the overall illness experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Palliative Care)
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