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Children 2017, 4(6), 46; doi:10.3390/children4060046

The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 00161, Italy
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Academic Editor: Sari A.  Acra
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Abstract

Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lipids; lipid metabolism nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lipids; lipid metabolism
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Perla, F.M.; Prelati, M.; Lavorato, M.; Visicchio, D.; Anania, C. The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Children 2017, 4, 46.

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