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Children 2017, 4(4), 27; doi:10.3390/children4040027

Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under Five in Southwest Ethiopia

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia
2
Mycobacteriology Research Center, Institute of Biotechnology, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia
3
Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Shanan Gibe Hospital, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 9086, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
5
Department of Statistics, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sari A. Acra
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage was 43.8% (158/361) among children under five. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, penicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin was observed in 53.2% (84/158), 43.7% (69/158), 36.1% (57/158), 13.3% (21/158) and 8.9% (14/158) of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was seen in 17.7% (28/158) of isolates. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, children living with sibling(s) < 5 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.798; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.169–2.766) and malnutrition (AOR = 2.065; 95% CI, 1.239–3.443) were significantly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage. A high nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was observed among children under five in Southwest Ethiopia. There should be a strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and identify the appropriate antibiotic to the individual child. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; nasopharyngeal carriage; antimicrobial susceptibility; risk factor Streptococcus pneumoniae; nasopharyngeal carriage; antimicrobial susceptibility; risk factor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gebre, T.; Tadesse, M.; Aragaw, D.; Feye, D.; Beyene, H.B.; Seyoum, D.; Mekonnen, M. Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under Five in Southwest Ethiopia. Children 2017, 4, 27.

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