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Children, Volume 4, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bronchitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations Children
Children 2017, 4(12), 103; doi:10.3390/children4120103
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, are common in First Nations children in Canada. The objectives are to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of bronchitis in children 6–17 years old residing in two reserve communities. The cross-sectional study was conducted in
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Respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, are common in First Nations children in Canada. The objectives are to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of bronchitis in children 6–17 years old residing in two reserve communities. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 and children from two First Nations reserve communities participated. The outcome was ever presence/absence of bronchitis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between bronchitis and the individual and environmental factors. A total of 351 First Nations children participated in the study. The prevalence of bronchitis was 17.9%. While 86.6% had at least one parent who smoked, smoking inside home was 43.9%. Signs of mold and mildew in homes were high. Prevalence of houses with any damage caused by dampness was 42.2%, with 44.2% of homes showing signs of mold or mildew. Significant predictors of increased risk of bronchitis were: being obese; having respiratory allergies; exposed to parental cigarette smoking; and signs of mold and mildew in the home. There are several modifiable risk factors that should be considered when examining preventive interventions for bronchitis including obesity, smoking exposure, and home mold or dampness. Full article
Open AccessArticle Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt
Children 2017, 4(12), 104; doi:10.3390/children4120104
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years.
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Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Text Messaging Based Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Pre-Adolescent African American Girls
Children 2017, 4(12), 105; doi:10.3390/children4120105
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home
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African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8–10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers (n = 30) participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel (n = 10) reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0%) and accessing the Internet (100.0%). The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%). Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth) interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Family Pediatric Pain Group Therapy: Capturing Acceptance and Cultivating Change
Children 2017, 4(12), 106; doi:10.3390/children4120106
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Behavioral health interventions for pediatric chronic pain include cognitive-behavioral (CBT), acceptance and commitment (ACT), and family-based therapies, though literature regarding multi-family therapy (MFT) is sparse. This investigation examined the utility and outcomes of the Courage to Act with Pain: Teens Identifying Values, Acceptance,
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Behavioral health interventions for pediatric chronic pain include cognitive-behavioral (CBT), acceptance and commitment (ACT), and family-based therapies, though literature regarding multi-family therapy (MFT) is sparse. This investigation examined the utility and outcomes of the Courage to Act with Pain: Teens Identifying Values, Acceptance, and Treatment Effects (CAPTIVATE) program, which included all three modalities (CBT, ACT, MFT) for youth with chronic pain and their parents. Program utility, engagement, and satisfaction were evaluated via quantitative and qualitative feedback. Pain-specific psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal processes were examined along with outcomes related to disability, quality of life, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Participants indicated that CAPTIVATE was constructive, engaging, and helpful for social and family systems. Clinical and statistical improvements with large effect sizes were captured for pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and protective parenting but not family functioning. Similar effects were found for functional disability, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Given the importance of targeting multiple systems in the management of pediatric chronic pain, preliminary findings suggest a potential new group-based treatment option for youth and families. Next steps involve evaluating the differential effect of the program over treatment as usual, as well as specific CBT, ACT, and MFT components and processes that may affect outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
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Open AccessArticle Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth
Children 2017, 4(12), 107; doi:10.3390/children4120107
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female
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Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17). Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES), skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.07–0.89). A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86), suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72) but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55). Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination. Full article
Open AccessArticle Risk Factors Associated with Preterm Neonatal Mortality: A Case Study Using Data from Mt. Hope Women’s Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago
Children 2017, 4(12), 108; doi:10.3390/children4120108
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Preterm neonatal mortality contributes significantly to the high incidence of death among children under five years of age. Neonatal mortality also serves as an indicator of maternal health in society. The aim of the study is to examine the risk factors for preterm
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Preterm neonatal mortality contributes significantly to the high incidence of death among children under five years of age. Neonatal mortality also serves as an indicator of maternal health in society. The aim of the study is to examine the risk factors for preterm neonatal mortality at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Mount Hope Women’s Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago (MHWH). In this retrospective study, we included infants (N = 129), born < 37 weeks gestational age, between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Two binary logistic regression models (infant and maternal variables) were constructed to identify predictors of preterm neonatal mortality. Roughly 12% of the infants died after being admitted to the NICU. The binary logistic regression (infant model) had an excellent fit (area under the curve (AUC): 0.904, misclassification rate: 11.7%) whilst the maternal binary logistic model had a fair fit (AUC: 0.698). Birth weight, length of time on the ventilator and obstetric complications proved to significantly influence the odds of preterm neonatal death. The estimated models show that improvement in neonatal as well as maternal variables has direct impact on preterm neonatal mortality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mercury Hair Concentration among Primary School Children in Malaysia
Children 2017, 4(12), 109; doi:10.3390/children4120109
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption
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The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion–gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–10.4). This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle “I Learned to Let Go of My Pain”. The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Adolescents with Chronic Pain: An Analysis of Participants’ Treatment Experience
Children 2017, 4(12), 110; doi:10.3390/children4120110
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Chronic pain can lead to significant negative outcomes across many areas of life. Recently, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been identified as potentially effective tools for improved pain management among adolescents living with pain. This study aimed to explore the experience of adolescents who
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Chronic pain can lead to significant negative outcomes across many areas of life. Recently, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been identified as potentially effective tools for improved pain management among adolescents living with pain. This study aimed to explore the experience of adolescents who participated in an eight-week mindfulness group adapted for adolescents with chronic pain (MBI-A), and obtain their feedback and suggestions on group structure and content. A mixed method design was used employing qualitative data from focus groups and data from a satisfaction questionnaire. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive simple descriptive content analysis. Of the total participants (n = 21), 90% (n = 19) provided feedback by completing satisfaction questionnaires and seventeen (n = 17) of those also participated across two focus groups. Analysis of the focus group transcripts uncovered six themes: mindfulness skills, supportive environment, group exercises (likes and dislikes), empowerment, program expectations, and logistics. Participants reported positive experiences in the MBI-A program, including support received from peers and mindfulness skills, including present moment awareness, pain acceptance, and emotion regulation. Group members suggested increasing the number of sessions and being clearer at outset regarding a focus on reduction of emotional suffering rather than physical pain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Comparison of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome with Logistic Regression Models to Predict Sepsis in Neonates
Children 2017, 4(12), 111; doi:10.3390/children4120111
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
In 2005, an international pediatric sepsis consensus conference defined systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) for children <18 years of age, but excluded premature infants. In 2012, Hofer et al. investigated the predictive power of SIRS for term neonates. In this paper, we examined
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In 2005, an international pediatric sepsis consensus conference defined systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) for children <18 years of age, but excluded premature infants. In 2012, Hofer et al. investigated the predictive power of SIRS for term neonates. In this paper, we examined the accuracy of SIRS in predicting sepsis in neonates, irrespective of their gestational age (i.e., pre-term, term, and post-term). We also created two prediction models, named Model A and Model B, using binary logistic regression. Both models performed better than SIRS. We also developed an android application so that physicians can easily use Model A and Model B in real-world scenarios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) in cases of SIRS were 16.15%, 95.53%, 3.61, and 0.88, respectively, whereas they were 29.17%, 97.82%, 13.36, and 0.72, respectively, in the case of Model A, and 31.25%, 97.30%, 11.56, and 0.71, respectively, in the case of Model B. All models were significant with p < 0.001. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Smoothed Body Composition Percentiles Curves for Mexican Children Aged 6 to 12 Years
Children 2017, 4(12), 112; doi:10.3390/children4120112
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Overweight children and childhood obesity are a public health problem in Mexico. Obesity is traditionally assessed using body mass index (BMI), but an excess of adiposity does not necessarily reflect a high BMI. Thus, body composition indexes are a better alternative. Our objective
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Overweight children and childhood obesity are a public health problem in Mexico. Obesity is traditionally assessed using body mass index (BMI), but an excess of adiposity does not necessarily reflect a high BMI. Thus, body composition indexes are a better alternative. Our objective was to generate body composition percentile curves in children from Mexico City. A total of 2026 boys and 1488 girls aged 6 to 12 years old were studied in Mexico City. Body weight, height, and BMI calculation were measured. Total body fat percentage (TBFP) was derived from the skinfold thicknesses, and fat mass (FMI) and free fat mass indexes (FFMI) were calculated. Finally, age- and gender-specifıc smoothed percentile curves were generated with Cole’s Lambda, Mu, and Sigma (LMS) method. In general, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and TBFP were higher in boys, but FFM was higher in girls. TBFP appeared to increase significantly between ages 8 and 9 in boys (+2.9%) and between ages 10 and 11 in girls (+1.2%). In contrast, FFM% decreased noticeably between ages 8 and 9 until 12 years old in boys and girls. FMI values peaked in boys at age 12 (P97 = 14.1 kg/m2) and in girls at age 11 (P97 = 8.8 kg/m2). FFMI percentiles increase at a steady state reaching a peak at age 12 in boys and girls. Smoothed body composition percentiles showed a different pattern in boys and girls. The use of TBFP, FMI, and FFMI along with BMI provides valuable information in epidemiological, nutritional, and clinical research. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report A Rare Case of Pure Erythroid Sarcoma in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Literature Review
Children 2017, 4(12), 113; doi:10.3390/children4120113
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
We describe an exceptional case of erythroid sarcoma in a pediatric patient as a growing orbital mass with no evidence of morphologic bone marrow involvement, who was finally diagnosed of pure erythroid sarcoma based on histopathology and flow cytometry criteria. We discuss the
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We describe an exceptional case of erythroid sarcoma in a pediatric patient as a growing orbital mass with no evidence of morphologic bone marrow involvement, who was finally diagnosed of pure erythroid sarcoma based on histopathology and flow cytometry criteria. We discuss the contribution of standardized eight-color flow cytometry as a rapid and reliable diagnostic method. The use of normal bone marrow databases allowed us to identify small aberrant populations in bone marrow and later confirm the diagnosis in the neoplastic tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology and Hematology)
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