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Children 2016, 3(4), 19; doi:10.3390/children3040019

Age-Related Effect of Viral-Induced Wheezing in Severe Prematurity

1
Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC 20010, USA
3
Department of Integrative Systems Biology and Center for Genetic Medicine Research, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010, USA
4
Center for Genetic Research Medicine, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
5
Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
6
Division of Neonatology, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
7
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota 111321, Colombia
8
Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad El Bosque, Bogota 111321, Colombia
9
Research Unit, Military Hospital of Colombia, Bogota 111321, Colombia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sari Acra
Received: 17 July 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract

Premature children are prone to severe viral respiratory infections in early life, but the age at which susceptibility peaks and disappears for each pathogen is unclear. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of the age distribution and clinical features of acute viral respiratory infections in full-term and premature children, aged zero to seven years. Results: The study comprised of a total of 630 hospitalizations (n = 580 children). Sixty-seven percent of these hospitalizations occurred in children born full-term (>37 weeks), 12% in preterm (32–37 weeks) and 21% in severely premature children (<32 weeks). The most common viruses identified were rhinovirus (RV; 60%) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 17%). Age-distribution analysis of each virus identified that severely premature children had a higher relative frequency of RV and RSV in their first three years, relative to preterm or full-term children. Additionally, the probability of RV- or RSV-induced wheezing was higher overall in severely premature children less than three years old. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the vulnerability to viral infections in children born severely premature is more specific for RV and RSV and persists during the first three years of age. Further studies are needed to elucidate the age-dependent molecular mechanisms that underlie why premature infants develop RV- and RSV-induced wheezing in early life. View Full-Text
Keywords: prematurity; rhinovirus; respiratory syncytial virus prematurity; rhinovirus; respiratory syncytial virus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Perez, G.F.; Jain, A.; Kurdi, B.; Megalaa, R.; Pancham, K.; Huseni, S.; Isaza, N.; Rodriguez-Martinez, C.E.; Rose, M.C.; Pillai, D.; Nino, G. Age-Related Effect of Viral-Induced Wheezing in Severe Prematurity. Children 2016, 3, 19.

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