- freely available
Children 2016, 3(3), 11; doi:10.3390/children3030011
1.1. The Detrimental Outcomes of Sleep Problems
1.2. Prevalence of Sleep Problems in Children and Adolescents
1.3. Treatment of Behavioural Sleep Disorders
2. Is Formal Sleep Education the Answer?
3. Education to Behavioural Change
3.1. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
3.1.1. The Micro and Meso Systems in Relation to Sleep
3.1.2. The Exosystem: Economics and Education
3.1.3. The Macrosystem: Culture
3.1.4. The Chronosystem: Time
4. Limitations and Further Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|System Level||Domain||Sleep Impact||Solution|
|Individual child “you”||The individual child||• Individual differences in sleep need|
• Individual differences in the importance of sleep
• Temperamental differences in coping with sleep
|• Deliver sleep education messages inclusive of individual differences|
• Promote overall message of sleep health and ability for consumers to critically assess individual sleep need.
|• Family preferences|
• Parental influence and education
• Peer pressure
• School delivery of sleep education
• Close community perceived importance of sleep
|• Respect and address individual differences in families|
• Encourage a whole of school approach
• Deliver community based messages of sleep health through close community organisations (sports clubs etc.)
|Mesosystem||Relationship of Microsystem domains||• Family perceptions are influenced by: education, grandparent perceptions, peers and the importance placed upon sleep by schools, community and peers||• Recognise the relationships between all the above (one cannot be targeted without the other)|
|Exosystem||Education policy||• Sleep education delivered ad hoc in different schools with different agendas|
• Policy decisions by individual schools and education departments are not systematic
• Little sleep education in medical curricula
• School curricula are already overloaded
|• Introduce systematic sleep education in conjunction with diet and physical activity in schools.|
• Develop policy guidelines for sleep health
• Increase sleep education in medical curricula
• Deliver sleep education from the Top down in medical training
• Incorporate sleep into overall health messages across curricula areas and ages groups
|Economy||• Lower SES have poorer sleep|
• Poorer schools may not prioritise sleep due to curriculum pressures
|• Targeting low SES households and/or schools, where sleep health is poorest|
|Macro System||Culture and ethnicity||• Different cultures prioritise sleep in different ways||• Culturally sensitive sleep education inclusive of how best to improve sleep practices and accounting for cultural differences|
|Chronosystem||Time||• Sleep changes with age|
• Sleep priorities change with age
• One off message are unlikely to have long lasting impact.
|• Target specific sleep education to each age group.|
• Consider that one off messages are not sufficient and sleep health promotion messages needs to be across years and ages
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