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Children, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2014), Pages 1-62

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Welcome to Children A New Open Access Journal Dedicated to Sharing Medical Research Relevant to Children’s Health
Children 2014, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/children1010001
Received: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
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Abstract
I am very excited about the upcoming launch of Children, a journal dedicated to the streamlined yet scientifically rigorous electronic dissemination of peer-reviewed science related to childhood health and disease in developed and developing countries. The future of our world depends [...] Read more.
I am very excited about the upcoming launch of Children, a journal dedicated to the streamlined yet scientifically rigorous electronic dissemination of peer-reviewed science related to childhood health and disease in developed and developing countries. The future of our world depends on the health and well-being of all its children. Thus, the global health issues facing children today will determine medical history. Unfortunately, as the world becomes more of a global information village in many respects, there have remained impediments to eliminating regional disparities in sharing health information, be it in the fields of infectious diseases, nutrition or cancer risks, to name but a few. It is my hope that Children will be a forum for sharing information, and engaging in discussions and dialogue relevant to the care of children, unimpeded by limitations imposed by traditional print media. We also hope to dedicate entire issues to timely and relevant single-topic publications. [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Publisher’s Note: Children and Sustainability
Children 2014, 1(1), 3-4; doi:10.3390/children1010003
Received: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
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Abstract
We are launching the open access journal Children, a scholarly forum with pediatrics as the main focus. The journal title came to the minds of Dr. Brietta Pike and I in 2011, when both of us were lucky enough to have [...] Read more.
We are launching the open access journal Children, a scholarly forum with pediatrics as the main focus. The journal title came to the minds of Dr. Brietta Pike and I in 2011, when both of us were lucky enough to have a new baby in our respective families. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence
Children 2014, 1(1), 5-20; doi:10.3390/children1010005
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 31 January 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
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Abstract
Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families [...] Read more.
Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost. Full article
Open AccessArticle Uptake and Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray in an Australian Child Development Clinic
Children 2014, 1(1), 21-30; doi:10.3390/children1010021
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 23 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
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Abstract
Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA) to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This [...] Read more.
Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA) to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This study reviewed the utilization, yield and cost of genetic investigations in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in an Australian metropolitan child development service. Six hundred and ninety eight patients with PDD were identified from the clinic population. One hundred and ten (15.7%) of the clinic population had undergone investigation with chromosomal microarray, 140 (20.0%) with karyotype (KT), and 167 (23.9%) with Fragile X testing (FRGX). Twelve (10.9%) CMA findings were reported, of which seven (6.3%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Five (3.5%) KT findings were reported, of which four (2.9%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Two patients (1.2%) were identified with Fragile X expansions. One fifth of the clinic’s recent PDD population had undergone testing with CMA. CMA appears to have increased the diagnostic yield of the genetic investigation of autism, in line with internationally reported levels. Number needed to test (NNT) and cost per incremental diagnosis, were also in line with internationally reported levels. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Artificial Sweetened Beverages and Pediatric Obesity: The Controversy Continues
Children 2014, 1(1), 31-39; doi:10.3390/children1010031
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
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Abstract
The pediatric obesity epidemic has gathered public and political interest recently. People often choose “diet” or artificial sweetened beverages (ASB) to combat this epidemic, but the obesity incidence continues to rise. First, I review the pediatric studies on the effect of ASB [...] Read more.
The pediatric obesity epidemic has gathered public and political interest recently. People often choose “diet” or artificial sweetened beverages (ASB) to combat this epidemic, but the obesity incidence continues to rise. First, I review the pediatric studies on the effect of ASB consumption with subsequent food intake. Next, I present pediatric studies of chronic ASB consumption and weight change. Some epidemiologic pediatric studies have supported an association between artificial sweetener use and increased BMI but cannot prove causation. Randomized control trials have provided some evidence of weight loss with ASB ingestion among children, but study limitations may minimize these conclusions. Finally, I summarize the possible mechanisms that may drive potential effects of artificial sweeteners. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Controversies in Pediatric Digestive Diseases)
Open AccessReview Controversies Surrounding Clostridium difficile Infection in Infants and Young Children
Children 2014, 1(1), 40-47; doi:10.3390/children1010040
Received: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
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Abstract
Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and older children. However, as many as 80% of infants can be asymptomatically colonized. The reasons for this have not been well established but are believed to be due to differences [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and older children. However, as many as 80% of infants can be asymptomatically colonized. The reasons for this have not been well established but are believed to be due to differences in toxin receptors or toxin internalization. Determining which children who test positive for C. difficile warrant treatment is exceedingly difficult, especially in the setting of increased rates of detection and the rising risk of disease in children lacking classic risk factors for C. difficile. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Controversies in Pediatric Digestive Diseases)
Open AccessReview Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Haemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Children 2014, 1(1), 48-62; doi:10.3390/children1010048
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract
The increasing number of haemopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) taking place worldwide has offered a cure to many high risk childhood malignancies with an otherwise very poor prognosis. However, HSCT is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature death, and [...] Read more.
The increasing number of haemopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) taking place worldwide has offered a cure to many high risk childhood malignancies with an otherwise very poor prognosis. However, HSCT is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature death, and patients who have survived the acute complications continue to face lifelong health sequelae as a result of the treatment. Endocrine dysfunction is well described in childhood HSCT survivors treated for malignancies. The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage from the conditioning therapy, such as, alkylating agents and total body irradiation, which is given prior stem cell infusion. Although not immediately life-threatening, the impact of these abnormalities on the long term health and quality of life in these patients may be considerable. The prevalence, risk factors, clinical approaches to investigations and treatments, as well as the implications of ongoing surveillance of endocrine disorders in childhood HSCT survivors, are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acute and Long-Term Sequelae of Childhood Cancer Therapy)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Children Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
children@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
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