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Correction published on 16 May 2018, see Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 57.

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Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010036

The Direct and Indirect Roles of NF-κB in Cancer: Lessons from Oncogenic Fusion Proteins and Knock-in Mice

1
Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
2
Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Genetics Section, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV, Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Rudolf-Buchheim-Institute of Pharmacology, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Roles of NF-kB in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches)
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Abstract

NF-κB signaling pathways play an important role in the regulation of cellular immune and stress responses. Aberrant NF-κB activity has been implicated in almost all the steps of cancer development and many of the direct and indirect contributions of this transcription factor system for oncogenesis were revealed in the recent years. The indirect contributions affect almost all hallmarks and enabling characteristics of cancer, but NF-κB can either promote or antagonize these tumor-supportive functions, thus prohibiting global NF-κB inhibition. The direct effects are due to mutations of members of the NF-κB system itself. These mutations typically occur in upstream components that lead to the activation of NF-κB together with further oncogenesis-promoting signaling pathways. In contrast, mutations of the downstream components, such as the DNA-binding subunits, contribute to oncogenic transformation by affecting NF-κB-driven transcriptional output programs. Here, we discuss the features of recently identified oncogenic RelA fusion proteins and the characterization of pathways that are regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulatory phosphorylations. As NF-κB’s central role in human physiology prohibits its global inhibition, these auxiliary or cell type-specific NF-κB regulating pathways are potential therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: NF-κB; transcription; cancer NF-κB; transcription; cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Riedlinger, T.; Haas, J.; Busch, J.; van de Sluis, B.; Kracht, M.; Schmitz, M.L. The Direct and Indirect Roles of NF-κB in Cancer: Lessons from Oncogenic Fusion Proteins and Knock-in Mice. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 36.

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