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Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 17; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5020017

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila, Ermita, Manila 1000, Philippines
2
Juan R. Liwag Memorial High School, Gapan, Nueva Ecija 3105, Philippines
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wenbin Deng
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Neurologic Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1509 KB, uploaded 21 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1-42) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH2O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB1–42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM); coconut leaf extract; Cocos nucifera; Caenorhabditis elegans Alzheimer’s disease (AD); sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM); coconut leaf extract; Cocos nucifera; Caenorhabditis elegans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manalo, R.V.; Silvestre, M.A.; Barbosa, A.L.A.; Medina, P.M. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition. Biomedicines 2017, 5, 17.

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