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Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5010008

Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Viro-Immunotherapy: Defeating Cancer with a “Hammer” and “Anvil”

Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zong Sheng Guo and David L. Bartlett
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Abstract

Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. Based on this powerful platform, a multitude of strategies have been applied to further improve the immune-stimulating potential of VSV and synergize these responses with the direct oncolytic effect. These strategies include: 1. modification of endogenous virus genes to stimulate interferon induction; 2. virus-mediated expression of cytokines or immune-stimulatory molecules to enhance anti-tumor immune responses; 3. vaccination approaches to stimulate adaptive immune responses against a tumor antigen; 4. combination with adoptive immune cell therapy for potentially synergistic therapeutic responses. A summary of these approaches will be presented in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic virus; vesicular stomatitis virus; immune-suppression; immunotherapy; vaccination; adoptive cell therapy oncolytic virus; vesicular stomatitis virus; immune-suppression; immunotherapy; vaccination; adoptive cell therapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Melzer, M.K.; Lopez-Martinez, A.; Altomonte, J. Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Viro-Immunotherapy: Defeating Cancer with a “Hammer” and “Anvil”. Biomedicines 2017, 5, 8.

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