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Biomedicines, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2013), Pages 1-78

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Biomedicines—Moving Biologic Agents into Approved Treatment Options
Biomedicines 2013, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/biomedicines1010001
Received: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (96 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive [...] Read more.
The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive to traditional pharmacologic approaches. Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer and rheumatologic diseases has become a well accepted part of disease treatment plans. Gene therapy products have been approved in China and Europe. Bioengineering of new agents capitalizing on microRNA biology, nanoparticle technology, stem cell biology, and an increasing understanding of immunology predict a rich future for product development. [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Beyond Gene Delivery: Strategies to Engineer the Surfaces of Viral Vectors
Biomedicines 2013, 1(1), 3-16; doi:10.3390/biomedicines1010003
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
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Abstract
Viral vectors have been extensively studied due to their great transduction efficiency compared to non-viral vectors. These vectors have been used extensively in gene therapy, enabling the comprehension of, not only the advantages of these vectors, but also the limitations, such as [...] Read more.
Viral vectors have been extensively studied due to their great transduction efficiency compared to non-viral vectors. These vectors have been used extensively in gene therapy, enabling the comprehension of, not only the advantages of these vectors, but also the limitations, such as the activation of the immune system after vector administration. Moreover, the need to control the target of the vector has led to the development of chemical and non-chemical modifications of the vector surface, allowing researchers to modify the tropism and biodistribution profile of the vector, leading to the production of viral vectors able to target different tissues and organs. This review describes recent non-genetic modifications of the surfaces of viral vectors to decrease immune system activation and to control tissue targeting. The developments described herein provide opportunities for applications of gene therapy to treat acquired disorders and genetic diseases and to become useful tools in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Open AccessReview PTEN, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases
Biomedicines 2013, 1(1), 17-48; doi:10.3390/biomedicines1010017
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the discovery of PTEN, this protein has been shown to be an effective suppressor of cancer and a contributor to longevity. This report will review, in depth, the associations between PTEN and other molecules, its mutations and regulations in order to [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of PTEN, this protein has been shown to be an effective suppressor of cancer and a contributor to longevity. This report will review, in depth, the associations between PTEN and other molecules, its mutations and regulations in order to present how PTEN can be used to increase longevity. This report will collect recent research of PTEN and use this to discuss PTEN’s role in caloric restriction, antioxidative defense of DNA-damage and the role it plays in suppressing tumors. The report will also discuss that variety of ways that PTEN can be compromised, through mutations, complete loss of alleles and its main antagonist, the PI3K/AKT pathway. Full article
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Open AccessReview Decoding the Pluripotency Network: The Emergence of New Transcription Factors
Biomedicines 2013, 1(1), 49-78; doi:10.3390/biomedicines1010049
Received: 23 October 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core [...] Read more.
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors that play a critical role in controlling both pluripotency network and ESC identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

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