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Chemosensors, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 241-294

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Selectivity of Catalytically Modified Tin Dioxide to CO and NH3 Gas Mixtures
Chemosensors 2015, 3(4), 241-252; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3040241
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is aimed at selectivity investigation of gas sensors, based on chemically modified nanocrystalline tin dioxide in the detection of CO and ammonia mixtures in air. Sol-gel prepared tin dioxide was modified by palladium and ruthenium oxides clusters via an impregnation technique.
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This paper is aimed at selectivity investigation of gas sensors, based on chemically modified nanocrystalline tin dioxide in the detection of CO and ammonia mixtures in air. Sol-gel prepared tin dioxide was modified by palladium and ruthenium oxides clusters via an impregnation technique. Sensing behavior to CO, NH3 and their mixtures in air was studied by in situ resistance measurements. Using the appropriate match of operating temperatures, it was shown that the reducing gases mixed in a ppm-level with air could be discriminated by the noble metal oxide-modified SnO2. Introducing palladium oxide provided high CO-sensitivity at 25–50 °C. Tin dioxide modified by ruthenium oxide demonstrated increased sensor signals to ammonia at 150–200 °C, and selectivity to NH3 in presence of higher CO concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Sensors for the Estimation of the Inhibitory Effect of Phenylcarbamates to Cholinesterase
Chemosensors 2015, 3(4), 274-283; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3040274
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inhibitory effect of nine phenylcarbamates with various substituents was studied. For this purpose, electrochemical sensors were applied under two different conditions: if an enzyme was present in the solution or if the enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode surface. In both cases,
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The inhibitory effect of nine phenylcarbamates with various substituents was studied. For this purpose, electrochemical sensors were applied under two different conditions: if an enzyme was present in the solution or if the enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode surface. In both cases, 3-[(ethoxycarbonyl)amino]phenyl (4-chloro-phenyl)carbamate was found as the most effective inhibitor for butyrylcholinesterase. The best inhibitors for acetylcholinesterase were determined as well, depending on the used method. Thus, 3‑[(butoxycarbonyl)-amino]phenyl phenylcarbamate with the enzyme present in the solution and 3-[(ethoxycarbonyl)amino]phenyl (3-methylphenyl)carbamate when the enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode surface were evaluated as the most effective inhibitors. Michaelis constants as well as maximum reaction rates were calculated and assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper)
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Open AccessArticle Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode
Chemosensors 2015, 3(4), 284-294; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3040284
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
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Abstract
The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE) has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported
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The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE) has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipophilicity were evaluated for their effect on the useable lifetime, sensitivity, and selectivity of the ISE against 13 different anions. Selectivity was determined by a modified fixed interferent method, sensitivity was determined without interferents, and the usable lifetime evaluated at the elapsed time where 50% of the HPO4-ISE failed (L50). The results show that choosing a plasticizer that has a lipophilicity similar to the ionophore’s results in the best selectivity and sensitivity and the longest L50. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview New Nanomaterials and Luminescent Optical Sensors for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide
Chemosensors 2015, 3(4), 253-273; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3040253
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate methods that can continuously detect low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have a huge application potential in biological, pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental analysis. Luminescent probes and nanomaterials are used for fabrication of sensors for H2O2
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Accurate methods that can continuously detect low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have a huge application potential in biological, pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental analysis. Luminescent probes and nanomaterials are used for fabrication of sensors for H2O2 that can be applied for these purposes. In contrast to previous reviews focusing on the chemical design of molecular probes for H2O2, this mini-review highlights the latest luminescent nanoparticular materials and new luminescent optical sensors for H2O2 in terms of the nanomaterial composition and luminescent receptor used in the sensors. The nanomaterial section is subdivided into schemes based on gold nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles with embedded enzymes, probes showing aggregation-induced emission enhancement, quantum dots, lanthanide-based nanoparticles and carbon based nanomaterials, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are ordered according to the type of luminescent receptor used within the sensor membranes. Among them are lanthanide complexes, metal-ligand complexes, oxidic nanoparticles and organic dyes. Further, the optical sensors are confined to those that are capable to monitor the concentration of H2O2 in a sample over time or are reusable. Optical sensors responding to gaseous H2O2 are not covered. All nanomaterials and sensors are characterized with respect to the analytical reaction towards H2O2, limit of detection (LOD), analytical range, electrolyte, pH and response time/incubation time. Applications to real samples are given. Finally, we assess the suitability of the nanomaterials to be used in membrane-based sensors and discuss future trends and perspectives of these sensors in biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper)

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