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Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 83; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040083

Socioeconomic Status and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes; Race by Gender Differences

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
VA Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
4
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
5
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) across race by gender groups. Methods: Using a convenient sampling strategy, participants were 112 patients with type 2 DM who were prescribed insulin (ns = 38 Black women, 34 Black men, 14 White women, and 26 White men, respectively). Linear regression was used to test the associations between sociodemographic variables (race, gender, SES, governmental insurance) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the pooled sample and within subgroups defined by race and gender. Results: In the pooled sample, neither SES nor governmental insurance were associated with HbA1c. However, the race by gender interaction approached statistical significance (B = 0.34, 95% CI = −0.24–3.00, p =0.094), suggesting higher HbA1c in Black women, compared to other race by gender groups. In stratified models, SES (B = −0.33, 95% CI = −0.10–0.00, p = 0.050), and governmental insurance (B = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05–2.42, p = 0.042) were associated with HbA1c for Black men, but not for any of the other race by gender subgroups. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors may relate to health outcomes differently across race by gender subgroups. In particular, SES may be uniquely important for glycemic control of Black men. Due to lack of generalizability of the findings, additional research is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; insurance; ethnic groups; glycemic control; African Americans diabetes; insurance; ethnic groups; glycemic control; African Americans
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Assari, S.; Moghani Lankarani, M.; Piette, J.D.; Aikens, J.E. Socioeconomic Status and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes; Race by Gender Differences. Healthcare 2017, 5, 83.

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