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Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040072

Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women

1
Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
2
Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
3
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
4
Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
5
Public Health Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2308, Australia
6
New South Wales Health Pathology, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
7
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
8
Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
9
Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shervin Assari
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract

Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular; biomarkers; lipids; inflammation; pregnancy; gestation; Australian Aborigine; reference growth curves cardiovascular; biomarkers; lipids; inflammation; pregnancy; gestation; Australian Aborigine; reference growth curves
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Schumacher, T.L.; Oldmeadow, C.; Clausen, D.; Weatherall, L.; Keogh, L.; Pringle, K.G.; Rae, K.M. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women. Healthcare 2017, 5, 72.

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