Next Article in Journal
Decrease in Healthcare Utilization and Costs for Opioid Users Following Residential Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders
Next Article in Special Issue
Performable Case Studies in Ethics Education
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Hemodialysis Frequency and Duration on Blood Pressure Management and Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nurse Perceptions of Artists as Collaborators in Interprofessional Care Teams
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Healthcare 2017, 5(3), 53; doi:10.3390/healthcare5030053

Paint it Black: Using Change-Point Analysis to Investigate Increasing Vulnerability to Depression towards the End of Vincent van Gogh’s Life

1
Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, Amsterdam 1018 WS, The Netherlands
2
Department of Methodology and Statistics, Faculty and Social of Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, Utrecht 3584 CH, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ian Walsh and Helen Noble
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1010 KB, uploaded 4 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study investigated whether Vincent van Gogh became increasingly self-focused—and thus vulnerable to depression—towards the end of his life, through a quantitative analysis of his written pronoun use over time. A change-point analysis was conducted on the time series formed by the pronoun use in Van Gogh’s letters. We used time as a predictor to see whether there was evidence for increased self-focus towards the end of Van Gogh’s life, and we compared this to the pattern in the letters written before his move to Arles. Specifically, we examined Van Gogh’s use of first person singular pronouns (FPSP) and first person plural pronouns (FPPP) in the 415 letters he wrote while working as an artist before his move to Arles, and in the next 248 letters he wrote after his move to Arles until his death in Auvers-sur-Oise. During the latter period, Van Gogh’s use of FPSP showed an annual increase of 0.68% (SE = 0.15, p < 0.001) and his use of FPPP showed an annual decrease of 0.23% (SE = 0.04, p < 0.001), indicating increasing self-focus and vulnerability to depression. This trend differed from Van Gogh’s pronoun use in the former period (which showed no significant trend in FPSP, and an annual increase of FPPP of 0.03%, SE = 0.02, p = 0.04). This study suggests that Van Gogh’s death was preceded by a gradually increasing self-focus and vulnerability to depression. It also illustrates how existing methods (i.e., quantitative linguistic analysis and change-point analysis) can be combined to study specific research questions in innovative ways. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; self-focus; change-point analysis; time series; arts; Vincent van Gogh depression; self-focus; change-point analysis; time series; arts; Vincent van Gogh
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Hamaker, E.L. Paint it Black: Using Change-Point Analysis to Investigate Increasing Vulnerability to Depression towards the End of Vincent van Gogh’s Life. Healthcare 2017, 5, 53.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top