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Healthcare 2016, 4(3), 57; doi:10.3390/healthcare4030057

Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women

1
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, and Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
2
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, and Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [242 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]

Abstract

Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0–5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18–35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2. The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = −0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = −0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease risk; nutrition; lifestyle behaviours; young women cardiovascular disease risk; nutrition; lifestyle behaviours; young women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Whatnall, M.C.; Collins, C.E.; Callister, R.; Hutchesson, M.J. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women. Healthcare 2016, 4, 57.

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