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Proteomes 2015, 3(3), 184-235; doi:10.3390/proteomes3030184

Immature Seed Endosperm and Embryo Proteomics of the Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) by One-Dimensional Gel-Based Tandem Mass Spectrometry and a Comparison with the Mature Endosperm Proteome

1
Laboratory of Molecular Food Functionality, College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami, Ibaraki 300-0393, Japan
2
Plant Global Educational Project, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan
3
Department of Bioinformatics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
4
Global Research Center for Innovative Life Sciences, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan
5
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences & Tsukuba International Academy for Sport Studies (TIAS), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan
6
Research Laboratory for Biotechnology and Biochemistry (RLABB), GPO 13265, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
7
GRADE (Global Research Arch for Developing Education) Academy Pvt., Ltd., Adarsh Nagar-13, Birgunj 44300, Nepal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jacek R. Wisniewski
Received: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seed proteome has been the focus of our studies, and we have recently established the first proteome dataset for its mature seed endosperm. The current study unravels the immature endosperm, as well as the embryo proteome, to provide a comprehensive dataset of the lotus seed proteins and a comparison between the mature and immature endosperm tissues across the seed’s development. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) linked with tandem mass spectrometry provided a protein inventory of the immature endosperm (122 non-redundant proteins) and embryo (141 non-redundant proteins) tissues. Comparing with the previous mature endosperm dataset (66 non-redundant proteins), a total of 206 non-redundant proteins were identified across all three tissues of the lotus seed. Results revealed some significant differences in proteome composition between the three lotus seed tissues, most notably between the mature endosperm and its immature developmental stage shifting the proteins from nutrient production to nutrient storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1-DGE; LC-MS/MS; lotus; seed; proteome analysis; plant proteomics 1-DGE; LC-MS/MS; lotus; seed; proteome analysis; plant proteomics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moro, C.F.; Fukao, Y.; Shibato, J.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G.K.; Shioda, S.; Kouzuma, Y.; Yonekura, M. Immature Seed Endosperm and Embryo Proteomics of the Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) by One-Dimensional Gel-Based Tandem Mass Spectrometry and a Comparison with the Mature Endosperm Proteome. Proteomes 2015, 3, 184-235.

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