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Proteomes, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 154-290

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Effect of Aluminum Treatment on Proteomes of Radicles of Seeds Derived from Al-Treated Tomato Plants
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 169-190; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020169
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 28 March 2014
Cited by 4
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive Al3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented
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Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive Al3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 µM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harvested from Al-treated plants contained a significantly higher Al content than those grown in the control hydroponic solution. In this study, these Al-enriched tomato seeds (harvested from Al-treated tomato plants) were germinated in 50 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution in a homopiperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer (pH 4.0), and the control solution which contained the buffer only. Proteomes of radicles were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectrometry employing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ®). The proteins identified were assigned to molecular functional groups and cellular metabolic pathways using MapMan. Among the proteins whose abundance levels changed significantly were: a number of transcription factors; proteins regulating gene silencing and programmed cell death; proteins in primary and secondary signaling pathways, including phytohormone signaling and proteins for enhancing tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. Among the metabolic pathways, enzymes in glycolysis and fermentation and sucrolytic pathways were repressed. Secondary metabolic pathways including the mevalonate pathway and lignin biosynthesis were induced. Biological reactions in mitochondria seem to be induced due to an increase in the abundance level of mitochondrial ribosomes and enzymes in the TCA cycle, electron transport chains and ATP synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Developmentally-Dynamic Murine Brain Proteomes and Phosphoproteomes Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 191-207; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020191
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 3
Abstract
Developmental processes are governed by a diverse suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. Recent advances in large-scale phosphoproteomic methodologies have made possible the identification and quantification of hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation sites from primary tissues. Towards a global characterization of proteomic
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Developmental processes are governed by a diverse suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. Recent advances in large-scale phosphoproteomic methodologies have made possible the identification and quantification of hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation sites from primary tissues. Towards a global characterization of proteomic changes across brain development, we present the results of a large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry study comparing embryonic, newborn and adult murine brain. Using anti-phosphotyrosine immuno-affinity chromatography and strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, coupled to immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), we identified and quantified over 1,750 phosphorylation sites and over 1,300 proteins between three developmental states. Bioinformatic analyses highlight functions associated with the identified proteins and phosphoproteins and their enrichment at distinct developmental stages. These results serve as a primary reference resource and reveal dynamic developmental profiles of proteins and phosphoproteins from the developing murine brain. Full article
Open AccessArticle Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 208-223; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020208
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 15 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 9 April 2014
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that
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Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Protein Profiling Reveals Novel Proteins in Pollen and Pistil of W22 (ga1; Ga1) in Maize
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 258-271; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020258
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 1
Abstract
Gametophytic factors mediate pollen-pistil interactions in maize (Zea mays L.) and play active roles in limiting gene flow among maize populations and between maize and teosinte. This study was carried out to identify proteins and investigate the mechanism of gametophytic factors using
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Gametophytic factors mediate pollen-pistil interactions in maize (Zea mays L.) and play active roles in limiting gene flow among maize populations and between maize and teosinte. This study was carried out to identify proteins and investigate the mechanism of gametophytic factors using protein analysis. W22 (ga1); which did not carry a gametophytic factor and W22 (Ga1), a near iso-genic line, were used for the proteome investigation. SDS-PAGE was executed to investigate proteins in the pollen and pistil of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). A total of 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the pollen and pistil on SDS-PAGE using LTQ-FTICR MS. Among the 44 proteins, a total of 24 proteins were identified in the pollen of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1) whereas 20 differentially expressed proteins were identified from the pistil of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). However, in pollen, 2 proteins were identified only in the W22 (ga1) and 12 proteins only in the W22 (Ga1) whereas 10 proteins were confirmed from the both of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). In contrary, 10 proteins were appeared only in the pistil of W22 (ga1) and 7 proteins from W22 (Ga1) while 3 proteins confirmed in the both of W22 (ga1) and W22 (Ga1). Moreover, the identified proteins were generally involved in hydrolase activity, nucleic acid binding and nucleotide binding. These results help to reveal the mechanism of gametophytic factors and provide a valuable clue for the pollen and pistil research in maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways?
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 224-242; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020224
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 9
Abstract
Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to
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Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to enlarge the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Comparisons between these proteomes have been done based on various working strategies or different physiological stages. In this review, two points are highlighted. The first point is related to data analysis with an overview of the cell wall proteomes already described. A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents exhibit particularities in relation to the major differences in cell wall composition and structure between these plants and between plant organs. The second point is related to methodology and concerns the present limitations of the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions in cell walls, some CWPs can be missing either because they are washed out during the purification of cell walls or because they are covalently linked to cell wall components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Proteome of the Murine Presynaptic Active Zone
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 243-257; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020243
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 24 April 2014
Cited by 3
Abstract
The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols
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The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols and the proteomic approaches employed. A breakthrough for the identification of the proteome of the presynaptic active zone was the successful employment of antibodies directed against a cytosolic epitope of membrane integral synaptic vesicle proteins for the immunopurification of synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Combining immunopurification and subsequent analytical mass spectrometry, hundreds of proteins, including synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular signaling and a large variety of adhesion molecules, were identified. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. This review will critically discuss both the experimental approaches and prominent protein candidates identified. Many proteins have not previously been assigned to the presynaptic release sites and may be directly involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the presynaptic compartment. The identification of proteinaceous constituents of the presynaptic active zone provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of presynaptic proteins with their targets and opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteomics)
Open AccessReview The Role of Translational Regulation in Survival after Radiation Damage; an Opportunity for Proteomics Analysis
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 272-290; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020272
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this review, we will summarize the data from different model systems that illustrate the need for proteome-wide analyses of the biological consequences of ionizing radiation (IR). IR remains one of three main therapy choices for oncology, the others being surgery and chemotherapy.
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In this review, we will summarize the data from different model systems that illustrate the need for proteome-wide analyses of the biological consequences of ionizing radiation (IR). IR remains one of three main therapy choices for oncology, the others being surgery and chemotherapy. Understanding how cells and tissues respond to IR is essential for improving therapeutic regimes against cancer. Numerous studies demonstrating the changes in the transcriptome following exposure to IR, in diverse systems, can be found in the scientific literature. However, the limitation of our knowledge is illustrated by the fact that the number of transcripts that change after IR exposure is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the number of transcripts that re-localize to or from ribosomes under similar conditions. Furthermore, changes in the post-translational modifications of proteins (phosphorylation, acetylation as well as degradation) are profoundly important for the cellular response to IR. These considerations make proteomics a highly suitable tool for mechanistic studies of the effect of IR. Strikingly such studies remain outnumbered by those utilizing proteomics for diagnostic purposes such as the identification of biomarkers for the outcome of radiation therapy. Here we will discuss the role of the ribosome and translational regulation in the survival and preservation of cells and tissues after exposure to ionizing radiation. In doing so we hope to provide a strong incentive for the study of proteome-wide changes following IR exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Proteomics)

Other

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Open AccessOpinion Origination of the Protein Fold Repertoire from Oily Pluripotent Peptides
Proteomes 2014, 2(2), 154-168; doi:10.3390/proteomes2020154
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 1
Abstract
While the repertoire of protein folds that exists today underlies most of life’s capabilities, our mechanistic picture of protein fold origination is incomplete. This paper discusses a hypothetical mechanism for the emergence of the protein fold repertoire from highly dynamic and collapsed peptides,
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While the repertoire of protein folds that exists today underlies most of life’s capabilities, our mechanistic picture of protein fold origination is incomplete. This paper discusses a hypothetical mechanism for the emergence of the protein fold repertoire from highly dynamic and collapsed peptides, exemplified by peptides with high oil content or hydrophobicity. These peptides are called pluripotent to emphasize their capacity to evolve into numerous folds transiently available to them. As evidence, the paper will discuss previous simulation work on the superior fold evolvability of oily peptides, trace (“fossil”) evidence within proteomes seen today, and a general relationship between protein dynamism and evolvability. Aside from implications on the origination of protein folds, the hypothesis implies that the vanishing utility of a random peptide in protein origination may be relatively exaggerated, as some random peptides with a certain composition (e.g., oily) may fare better than others. In later sections, the hypothesis is discussed in the context of existing discussions regarding the spontaneous origination of biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)

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