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Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood
Educational Support Center, Kyoto University of Education, 1 Fujinomori-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8522, Japan
Faculty of Education, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, 1-1-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima city, Hiroshima 839-8524, Japan
Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University, 1-20-6 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Faculty of Life Sciences, Swiss German University, Edu Town BSD City, Kav. II.1, Tangerang 15339, Indonesia
Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0125, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2012; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Abstract: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood, an instrument designed to measure a concept similar to “zest for living” in late childhood. A total of 1,888 elementary school students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades residing in urban and suburban areas as well as in remote islands of 3 prefectures (Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Nagasaki) were surveyed. On the basis of our analysis, 24 items and seven factors were extracted. These factors are problem-solving/synthesis, relationship with friends, personal manners, decision-making and future planning, self-learning, collecting and using information, and leadership. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were computed for each subscale and ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Test-retest reliability coefficient values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79. To examine the construct validity of the scales, a goodness-of-fit model was determined by confirmatory factor analysis, and satisfactory values were found (GFI = 0.952, AGFI = 0.937, CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.016). The validity of the goodness-of-fit model and the reliability of the scales indicate that the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood is an effective assessment tool.
Keywords: life skills; “zest for living”; multidimensional scale; late childhood
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Kobayashi, M.; Gushiken, T.; Ganaha, Y.; Sasazawa, Y.; Iwata, S.; Takemura, A.; Fujita, T.; Asikin, Y.; Takakura, M. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood. Educ. Sci. 2013, 3, 121-135.
Kobayashi M, Gushiken T, Ganaha Y, Sasazawa Y, Iwata S, Takemura A, Fujita T, Asikin Y, Takakura M. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood. Education Sciences. 2013; 3(2):121-135.
Kobayashi, Minoru; Gushiken, Taichi; Ganaha, Yurika; Sasazawa, Yosiaki; Iwata, Shotaro; Takemura, Akiko; Fujita, Tsutomu; Asikin, Yonathan; Takakura, Minoru. 2013. "Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood." Educ. Sci. 3, no. 2: 121-135.