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Technologies 2017, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/technologies5030055

Sample Entropy Identifies Differences in Spontaneous Leg Movement Behavior between Infants with Typical Development and Infants at Risk of Developmental Delay

1
Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9234, USA
3
Department of Exercise Science and Sport, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, USA
4
Department of Physical Therapy, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract

We are interested in using wearable sensor data to analyze detailed characteristics of movement, such as repeatability and variability of movement patterns, over days and months to accurately capture real-world infant behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore Sample Entropy (SampEn) from wearable sensor data as a measure of variability of spontaneous infant leg movement and as a potential marker of the development of neuromotor control. We hypothesized that infants at risk (AR) of developmental delay would present significantly lower SampEn values than infants with typical development (TD). Participants were 11 infants with TD and 20 infants AR. We calculated SampEn from 1–4 periods of data of 7200 samples in length when the infants were actively playing across the day. The infants AR demonstrated smaller SampEn values (median 0.21) than the infants with TD (median 1.20). Lower values of SampEn indicate more similarity in patterns across time, and may indicate more repetitive, less exploratory behavior in infants AR compared to infants with TD. In future studies, we would like to expand to analyze longer periods of wearable sensor data and/or determine how to optimally sample representative periods across days and months. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable sensors; infants; leg movement; movement system; sample entropy; variability wearable sensors; infants; leg movement; movement system; sample entropy; variability
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Smith, B.A.; Vanderbilt, D.L.; Applequist, B.; Kyvelidou, A. Sample Entropy Identifies Differences in Spontaneous Leg Movement Behavior between Infants with Typical Development and Infants at Risk of Developmental Delay. Technologies 2017, 5, 55.

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