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Technologies 2017, 5(3), 39; doi:10.3390/technologies5030039

Development of a Wearable Sensor Algorithm to Detect the Quantity and Kinematic Characteristics of Infant Arm Movement Bouts Produced across a Full Day in the Natural Environment

1
Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006, USA
2
Department of Preventative Medicine, Division of Biostatistics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9234, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9234, USA
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract

We developed a wearable sensor algorithm to determine the number of arm movement bouts an infant produces across a full day in the natural environment. Full-day infant arm movement was recorded from 33 infants (22 infants with typical development and 11 infants at risk of atypical development) across multiple days and months by placing wearable sensors on each wrist. Twenty second sections of synchronized video data were used to compare the algorithm against visual observation as the gold standard for counting the number of arm movement bouts. Overall, the algorithm counted 173 bouts and the observer identified 180, resulting in a sensitivity of 90%. For each bout produced across the day, we then calculated the following kinematic characteristics: duration, average and peak acceleration, average and peak angular velocity, and type of movement (one arm only, both arms for some portion of the bout, or both arms for the entire bout). As the first step toward developing norms, we present average values of full-day arm movement kinematic characteristics across the first months of infancy for infants with typical development. Identifying and quantifying infant arm movement characteristics produced across a full day has potential application in early identification of developmental delays and the provision of early intervention therapies to support optimal infant development. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable sensors; infants; arm movement; movement system wearable sensors; infants; arm movement; movement system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Trujillo-Priego, I.A.; Lane, C.J.; Vanderbilt, D.L.; Deng, W.; Loeb, G.E.; Shida, J.; Smith, B.A. Development of a Wearable Sensor Algorithm to Detect the Quantity and Kinematic Characteristics of Infant Arm Movement Bouts Produced across a Full Day in the Natural Environment. Technologies 2017, 5, 39.

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