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Technologies 2014, 2(2), 54-75; doi:10.3390/technologies2020054
Review

Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

Received: 13 December 2013; in revised form: 16 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Measurements and Metrology Using Lasers)
Abstract: Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.
Keywords: Optical heterodyne detection; Michelson interferometer; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; laser cooling of solids; laser heating of solids; fluorescence lifetime sensing; fluorescence ratio method; optical sensing of temperature; Interferometric measurement of crystal growth Optical heterodyne detection; Michelson interferometer; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; laser cooling of solids; laser heating of solids; fluorescence lifetime sensing; fluorescence ratio method; optical sensing of temperature; Interferometric measurement of crystal growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bommareddi, R.R. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials. Technologies 2014, 2, 54-75.

AMA Style

Bommareddi RR. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials. Technologies. 2014; 2(2):54-75.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bommareddi, Rami R. 2014. "Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials." Technologies 2, no. 2: 54-75.

Technologies EISSN 2227-7080 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert