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Pharmacy, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 202-259

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Using Numbers Creates Value for Health Professionals: A Quantitative Study of Pain Management in Palliative Care
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 205-221; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030205
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improvement methodology is based on processes to achieve quality and safety in health care in order to improve patient care, especially in management. The aim of this study was to identify differences regarding the method of estimating pain within palliative care in north-eastern
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Improvement methodology is based on processes to achieve quality and safety in health care in order to improve patient care, especially in management. The aim of this study was to identify differences regarding the method of estimating pain within palliative care in north-eastern Sweden. The study comprised three different data collections—questions from 22 staff members who worked in palliative care, data from the Swedish Palliative Registry, and patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using a quantitative approach to measure the proportion of differences and similarities in everyday pain management. The two categories “Documentation of Pain Management” and “Pain Management Activities” were identified and illustrated how repeated pain management measurements contributed to a clearer view of pain management activities. The use of numbers instead of words contributed to a better, clearer, and more unified documentation of pain ratings. Use of validated rating tools regarding patients last week of life increased from 47%–100%. This study may inspire better routines to estimate pain and quantify no pain in palliative care. Evidence-based measurement tools from the patient’s perspective, can improve pain management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 222-230; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030222
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct
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Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicines across the Interface)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Impact of a Physical Assessment Course on the Practice of Institutional Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 248-259; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030248
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
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Abstract
We aimed to assess the impact of a professional development course on clinical pharmacists’ level of confidence using physical assessment (PA) and whether it resulted in changes to their clinical practice. Workshop participants were asked to complete a pre-workshop survey, as well as
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We aimed to assess the impact of a professional development course on clinical pharmacists’ level of confidence using physical assessment (PA) and whether it resulted in changes to their clinical practice. Workshop participants were asked to complete a pre-workshop survey, as well as three post-workshop surveys, to assess the pharmacists’ level of confidence in PA. Pharmacists were also asked about their integration of PA skills and use of Additional Prescribing Authority (APA). Pharmacists’ confidence in performing PA, discussing PA findings, and using PA to manage drug therapy were significantly higher at all time-points post workshop. Pharmacists with APA also indicated increased confidence with prescribing. Professional development in physical assessment may provide opportunities for pharmacists to integrate new knowledge and skills within their practice. Future research should examine if such educational opportunities will support sustainable practice change. Full article
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Open AccessComment The Catch-22 of Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan’s Pharmacy Education
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 202-204; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030202
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 15 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As
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New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)
Open AccessConcept Paper Heterogeneity of Pharmacy Education in Europe
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 231-243; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030231
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 1985 European Economic Community (EEC) directive on the sectoral profession of pharmacy assumed that the comparability of pharmacy education across Europe could provide a basis for the mutual recognition of diplomas. A study by the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP)
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The 1985 European Economic Community (EEC) directive on the sectoral profession of pharmacy assumed that the comparability of pharmacy education across Europe could provide a basis for the mutual recognition of diplomas. A study by the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP) in 1994 showed, however, that there was large variability in course content. The 2011 PHARMINE study investigated whether such variability had decreased. Information from across the EU countries on the number of contact hours in specific subject areas was compared for the years of 1994 and 2011. Data was obtained from the original 1994 Bourlioux/EAFP study and the 2011 PHARMINE survey. As the latter was based on the 1994 survey, the questions and categories were similar. Results show that there has not been a fall in the variability of course content. Furthermore, EU pharmacy courses have become more “clinical” with an increase in contact hours in the subject area of medicinal sciences. Full article
Open AccessOpinion Clinical Trials Involving Pharmacists in Pakistan’s Healthcare System: A Leap from Paper to Practice
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 244-247; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030244
Received: 12 July 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
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Abstract
The inclusion of pharmacists in the healthcare system of a developing country like Pakistan has always been a subject of debate among the healthcare professionals (HCPs), especially physicians, who have long ruled the healthcare system alone and who have had a long-held position
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The inclusion of pharmacists in the healthcare system of a developing country like Pakistan has always been a subject of debate among the healthcare professionals (HCPs), especially physicians, who have long ruled the healthcare system alone and who have had a long-held position of supremacy. The common argument against the inclusion of pharmacists is the dynamics of the healthcare system, and patients being physician oriented, hence, consider the inclusion of pharmacists as no good. Although the trend of defiance is changing, it is worthwhile mentioning here that the concept of the inclusion of pharmacist was implemented in developed countries by an evidence-based approach, i.e., to actually involve pharmacists in the disease state management of a patient and conducting a trial. This opinion calls for the same to be implemented in a developing country like Pakistan to evaluate its significance. Full article

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