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Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, International University for Science and Technology, Dara'a, Syrian Arab Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Abstract: This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST). Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
Keywords: doping; performance-enhancing substances; drug abuse; pharmacy students
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MDPI and ACS Style
El-Hammadi, M.; Hunien, B. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy 2013, 1, 94-106.
El-Hammadi M, Hunien B. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy. 2013; 1(2):94-106.
El-Hammadi, Mazen; Hunien, Bashar. 2013. "Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students." Pharmacy 1, no. 2: 94-106.