Next Article in Journal
Assessing Outcomes of Online Training in Public Health: Changes in Individual and Organizational Knowledge and Capacity
Previous Article in Journal
Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?
Pharmacy 2013, 1(2), 94-106; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1020094
Article

Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students

1,2,*  and 2
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [207 KB, updated 2 October 2013; original version uploaded 27 September 2013]
Abstract: This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST). Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
Keywords: doping; performance-enhancing substances; drug abuse; pharmacy students doping; performance-enhancing substances; drug abuse; pharmacy students
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

El-Hammadi, M.; Hunien, B. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy 2013, 1, 94-106.

AMA Style

El-Hammadi M, Hunien B. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy. 2013; 1(2):94-106.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Hammadi, Mazen; Hunien, Bashar. 2013. "Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students." Pharmacy 1, no. 2: 94-106.


Pharmacy EISSN 2226-4787 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert