Next Article in Journal
Availability, Uniqueness and Perceived Value of Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS) Programs in the United States
Next Article in Special Issue
From Workshop to E-Learning: Using Technology-Enhanced “Intermediate Concept Measures” As a Framework for Pharmacy Ethics Education and Assessment
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a Blended Learning Environment to Support Achievement of Graduate Outcomes through Optimal Learning in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Course
Pharmacy 2013, 1(2), 269-281; doi:10.3390/pharmacy1020269

Exploring Just-in-Time Teaching 3D Development as a Tool for Enhancing Knowledge and Understanding

*  and
School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Riverside East, Garthdee Road Aberdeen, Scotland AB10 7GJ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Learning)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [552 KB, uploaded 11 December 2013]   |   Browse Figures


The integumentary system (skin) is the first line of defence in the body and part of the innate immune system. Within first year modules on Pharmaceutical Biology and Integrative Physiology in the Masters of Pharmacy degree at Robert Gordon University (RGU) several software tools were used to support both lecture and coursework material for the immune and integumentary systems. However, students had difficulty visualizing the various layers of the skin and how they become affected by different skin lesions. As a response to these identified learning difficulties, a just-in-time teaching 3-Dimensional elearning object was developed using free-to-use 3D CAD packages alongside common elearning software. The outcome was a virtualised human arm equipped to illustrate and label primary or secondary skin lesions whilst allowing spatial manipulation of the arm. This allowed students to manipulate and identify the specific skin layers involved. Evaluation of student engagement and learning was favourable, with students reflecting that they had a better understanding of the topic. Initial findings from this study highlight the benefits of quick, low-cost 3D production processes as just-in-time teaching elearning tools that have a positive impact on students’ performance.
Keywords: just-in-time teaching; 3D design; elearning; moodle; articulate; open source just-in-time teaching; 3D design; elearning; moodle; articulate; open source
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

McFadyen, M.C.; Watson, E.W. Exploring Just-in-Time Teaching 3D Development as a Tool for Enhancing Knowledge and Understanding. Pharmacy 2013, 1, 269-281.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics


Cited By

[Return to top]
Pharmacy EISSN 2226-4787 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert