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Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 48; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030048

Rarefication Effects on Jet Impingement Loads

1
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Science and Technological University, Qingdao 26610, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, The Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
3
Center for Integrative Petroleum Research, College of Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract

Rarefication effects on jet impingement loads are studied by comparing recent new formulas at the collisionless flow limit and numerical simulations. The jet exit size is finite, and can be either planar or round. In the simulations, the jets have different degrees of rarefication, with a Knudsen (Kn) number ranging from 0 to infinity; i.e., the jet flows can be continuum, collisional, or collisionless. The comparison results indicate that (1) the new surface load formulas are accurate at the collisionless flow limit; (2) in general, the formulas offer upper limits for the peak loads; (3) however, it is improper to assert that local loads always decrease. The new formulas can offer fast estimations of impingement loads. This may be quite helpful for applications in space engineering by significantly reducing the amount of simulations and experiment costs. Those expressions explicitly include non-dimensional parameters, and their contribution and influence on the loads can be studied in a systematic manner (e.g., with a swift parameter study). View Full-Text
Keywords: compressible flows; free molecular flow; rarefied gas dynamics; jet impingement; direct simulation Monte Carlo compressible flows; free molecular flow; rarefied gas dynamics; jet impingement; direct simulation Monte Carlo
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cai, S.; Cai, C.; Zhang, K.; Li, J. Rarefication Effects on Jet Impingement Loads. Aerospace 2017, 4, 48.

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