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Aerospace 2015, 2(1), 17-90; doi:10.3390/aerospace2010017

On Physical Aeroacoustics with Some Implications for Low-Noise Aircraft Design and Airport Operations

CCTAE (Center for Aeronautical and Space Science and Technology), Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica (IDMEC), IST (Instituto Superior Técnico), Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Academic Editor: Konstantinos Kontis
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Forward Aerospace Innovation)

Abstract

Air traffic is growing at a steady rate of 3% to 5% per year in most regions of the world, implying a doubling every 15–25 years. This requires major advances in aircraft noise reduction at airports, just not to increase the noise exposure due to the larger number of aircraft movements. In fact it can be expected, as a consequence of increased opposition to noise by near airport residents, that the overall noise exposure will have to be reduced, by bans, curfews, fines, and other means and limitations, unless significantly quieter aircraft operations are achieved. The ultimate solution is aircraft operations inaudible outside the airport perimeter, or noise levels below road traffic and other existing local noise sources. These substantial noise reductions cannot come at the expense of a degradation of cruise efficiency, that would affect not just economics and travel time, but would increase fuel consumption and emission of pollutants on a global scale. The paper reviews the: (i) current knowledge of the aircraft noise sources; (ii) the sound propagation in the atmosphere and ground effects that determine the noise annoyance of near-airport residents; (iii) the noise mitigation measures that can be applied to current and future aircraft; (iv) the prospects of evolutionary and novel aircraft designs towards quieter aircraft in the near term and eventually to operations inaudible outside the airport perimeter. The 20 figures and 1 diagram with their legends provide a visual summary of the review. View Full-Text
Keywords: aeroacoustics; aircraft noise; airport noise aeroacoustics; aircraft noise; airport noise
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, L.M.B.C. On Physical Aeroacoustics with Some Implications for Low-Noise Aircraft Design and Airport Operations. Aerospace 2015, 2, 17-90.

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