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Climate 2018, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6030058

Downscaling of Future Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Addis Ababa under Climate Change

1
EiABC, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 518, 1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, 1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract

One of the recent advances in climate science research is the development of global general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate changes in climatic elements of the present and future, which helps us to determine consequences earlier and prepare for necessary adaptation measures. However, it is difficult to apply the raw data of GCMs at a local scale, such as the urban scale, without downscaling due to coarse resolution. This study, therefore, statistically downscaled daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation in 30-year intervals from the second generation of the Earth System Model (CanESM2) and Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) Scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), A1B and A2, to examine future changes and their extremes. Two representative meteorological stations (Entoto at high elevation and Addis Ababa at downtown and medium elevation) were selected for model calibration and validation in the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Twelve core temperature and precipitation indices were selected to assess temperature changes and precipitation extremes. For the largest changes the results showed that the maximum temperature increases were in the range of 0.9 °C (RCP4.5) in 2020 to 2.1 °C (CGCM3A2) in 2080 at Addis Ababa Observatory. The minimum temperature is projected to increase by 0.3 °C (RCP4.5) in 2020 and 1.0 °C in 2080 (CGCM3A1B). While the changes in maximum temperature are lower at Entoto station compared to Addis Ababa Observatory, the highest minimum temperature change is projected at Addis Ababa Observatory, which ranges from 0.25 °C in the 2020s to 1.04 °C in 2080 according to the CGCM3 model. Except for the coldest nights (TNn), the mean temperature and other temperature indices will continue to increase to the end of this century. The highest precipitation change is projected by CGCM3A2 and CanESM2 RCP8.5 at an increase of about 11.8% and 16.62% by 2080. The highest total precipitation increase is 29% (RCP4.5) in winter and 20.9% (RCP8.5) in summer by 2080. There is high interseasonal variability in changes of extreme events. The topographic role will diminish in influence on the air temperature distribution due to the high rate of urbanization. The rise in temperature will exacerbate the urban heat highland effects in warm seasons and an increase in precipitation is expected along with a possible risk of flooding due to a low level of infrastructure development and a high rate of urbanization. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; extreme events; general circulation models; RCP scenarios; SRES scenarios; Statistical Downscaling Model climate change; extreme events; general circulation models; RCP scenarios; SRES scenarios; Statistical Downscaling Model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Feyissa, G.; Zeleke, G.; Bewket, W.; Gebremariam, E. Downscaling of Future Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Addis Ababa under Climate Change. Climate 2018, 6, 58.

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