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J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 226-250; doi:10.3390/jsan4030226

Multi-Hop-Enabled Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jaime Lloret Mauri and Sandra Sendra
Received: 1 January 2015 / Revised: 11 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [777 KB, uploaded 2 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

In multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs), packet collisions due to hidden and local nodes adversely affect throughput, energy efficiency and end-to-end delay. Existing medium access control (MAC) protocols try to solve the problem by utilizing a single-phase contention resolution mechanism, which causes a large number of control packet exchanges and energy overhead. In this paper, we introduce a MAC protocol that splits this single-phase contention resolution mechanism into two phases to provide efficient multi-hop networking. In the first phase, local nodes are eliminated from the contention, and in the later phase, the adverse effects of hidden nodes are mitigated. This two-phased contention resolution provides higher energy efficiency, better throughput and shorter end-to-end delay, and it also enables adaptability for different network architectures. A probabilistic model of the proposed protocol is also developed to analyse the performance. The proposed protocol has been evaluated through quantitative analysis and simulation. Results obtained through quantitative analysis and simulation reveal that the proposed protocol achieves significantly better energy efficiency, higher and more stable throughput and lower end-to-end delay compared to existing protocols, namely T-Lohi and slotted floor acquisition multiple access (S-FAMA). View Full-Text
Keywords: MAC protocols for underwater sensor networks; underwater acoustic communication; MAC protocol; sensor network; multi-hop network MAC protocols for underwater sensor networks; underwater acoustic communication; MAC protocol; sensor network; multi-hop network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shazzad, K.; Tepe, K.; Abdel-Raheem, E. Multi-Hop-Enabled Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4, 226-250.

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