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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2015), Pages 154-273

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Research

Open AccessCommunication Radio/Antenna Mounting System for Wireless Networking under Row-Crop Agriculture Conditions
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 154-159; doi:10.3390/jsan4030154
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
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Abstract
Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-collection procedures, power management, and
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Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-collection procedures, power management, and communication protocols, little information related to physical deployment issues has been reported. To achieve acceptable wireless transmission capability, the radio/antenna must be positioned properly relative to the ground surface or crop canopy to minimize degradation of the radio signal, usually requiring the mounting of the radio/antenna above the canopy. This results in the presence of obstacles to normal agricultural equipment traffic and production operations and potential damage to the wireless monitoring system. A simple and rugged radio/antenna mounting system was designed which could be subjected to encounters with agricultural equipment without suffering physical damage. The mounting system was deployed and tested, and operated successfully following repeated encounters with various agricultural machines and implements. The radio/antenna mount is simple and inexpensive to fabricate using locally available components. Full article
Open AccessArticle Context-Aware Local Optimization of Sensor Network Deployment
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 160-188; doi:10.3390/jsan4030160
Received: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are increasingly used for tracking and monitoring dynamic phenomena in urban and natural areas. Spatial coverage is an important issue in sensor networks in order to fulfill the needs of sensing applications. Optimization methods are widely used to efficiently distribute
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Wireless sensor networks are increasingly used for tracking and monitoring dynamic phenomena in urban and natural areas. Spatial coverage is an important issue in sensor networks in order to fulfill the needs of sensing applications. Optimization methods are widely used to efficiently distribute sensor nodes in the network to achieve a desired level of coverage. Most of the existing algorithms do not consider the characteristics of the real environment in the optimization process. In this paper, we propose the integration of contextual information in optimization algorithms to improve sensor network coverage. First, we investigate the implication of contextual information in sensor networks. Then, a conceptual framework for local context-aware sensor network deployment optimization method is introduced and related algorithms are presented in detail. Finally, several experiments are carried out to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The results obtained from these experiments show the effectiveness of our approach in different contextual situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Long-Range Directional Wake-Up Radio for Wireless Mobile Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 189-207; doi:10.3390/jsan4030189
Received: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 3 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a long-range directional wake-up radio (LDWuR) for wireless mobile networks. In contrast to most wake-up radios (WuR) to date, which are short range, ours is applicable to long-range deployments. Existing studies achieve long distance by using modulation and coding schemes
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This paper describes a long-range directional wake-up radio (LDWuR) for wireless mobile networks. In contrast to most wake-up radios (WuR) to date, which are short range, ours is applicable to long-range deployments. Existing studies achieve long distance by using modulation and coding schemes or by directional antennas, though the latter require exploring the direction of the transmitter. To address this issue, our LDWuR adopts both static and dynamic antennas, where the static ones are directional, while the dynamic ones are omnidirectional for beamforming. We present our LDWuR prototype and design principle. Simulation results show that our LDWuR and event-driven MAC protocol suppress the idle-listening of Wi-Fi stations in a wireless network, thereby enhancing the Wi-Fi power savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Directional Antenna Enhanced Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Dense Clustered Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Cloud
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 208-225; doi:10.3390/jsan4030208
Received: 12 April 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dense Wireless Sensor Network Clouds have an inherent issue of latency and packet drops with regards to data collection. Though there is extensive literature that tries to address these issues through either scheduling, channel contention or a combination of the two, the problem
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Dense Wireless Sensor Network Clouds have an inherent issue of latency and packet drops with regards to data collection. Though there is extensive literature that tries to address these issues through either scheduling, channel contention or a combination of the two, the problem still largely exists. In this paper, a Clustered Multi-Channel Scheduling Protocol (CMSP) is designed that creates a Voronoi partition of a dense network. Each partition is assigned a channel, and a scheduling scheme is adopted to collect data within the Voronoi partitions. This scheme collects data from the partitions concurrently and then passes it to the base station. CMSP is compared using simulation with other multi-channel protocols like Tree-based Multi-Channel, Multi-Channel MAC and Multi-frequency Media Access Control for wireless sensor networks. Results indicate CMSP has higher throughput and data delivery ratio at a lower power consumption due to network partitioning and hierarchical scheduling that minimizes load on the network. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-Hop-Enabled Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 226-250; doi:10.3390/jsan4030226
Received: 1 January 2015 / Revised: 11 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs), packet collisions due to hidden and local nodes adversely affect throughput, energy efficiency and end-to-end delay. Existing medium access control (MAC) protocols try to solve the problem by utilizing a single-phase contention resolution mechanism, which causes
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In multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs), packet collisions due to hidden and local nodes adversely affect throughput, energy efficiency and end-to-end delay. Existing medium access control (MAC) protocols try to solve the problem by utilizing a single-phase contention resolution mechanism, which causes a large number of control packet exchanges and energy overhead. In this paper, we introduce a MAC protocol that splits this single-phase contention resolution mechanism into two phases to provide efficient multi-hop networking. In the first phase, local nodes are eliminated from the contention, and in the later phase, the adverse effects of hidden nodes are mitigated. This two-phased contention resolution provides higher energy efficiency, better throughput and shorter end-to-end delay, and it also enables adaptability for different network architectures. A probabilistic model of the proposed protocol is also developed to analyse the performance. The proposed protocol has been evaluated through quantitative analysis and simulation. Results obtained through quantitative analysis and simulation reveal that the proposed protocol achieves significantly better energy efficiency, higher and more stable throughput and lower end-to-end delay compared to existing protocols, namely T-Lohi and slotted floor acquisition multiple access (S-FAMA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2015, 4(3), 251-273; doi:10.3390/jsan4030251
Received: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on
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Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security Issues in Sensor Networks)
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