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J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2014, 3(4), 297-330; doi:10.3390/jsan3040297

Towards Long-Term Multi-Hop WSN Deployments for Environmental Monitoring: An Experimental Network Evaluation

1
Department of Computer and Information Science, Indiana University Purdue University, 723 West Michigan Street, SL 280, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 3700 O’Hara Street, 728 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
3
Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
This article extends our initial work “A Study of Long-Term WSN Deployment for Environmental Monitoring”, presented at the 2013 IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC).
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1664 KB, uploaded 5 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

This paper explores the network performance and costs associated with the deployment, labor, and maintenance of a long-term outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN) located at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), which has been in operation for more than four years for environmental data collection. The WSN performance is studied over selected time periods during the network deployment time, based on two different TinyOS-based WSN routing protocols: commercial XMesh and the open-source Collection Tree Protocol (CTP). Empirical results show that the network performance is improved with CTP (i.e., 79% packet reception rate, 96% packet success rate and 0.2% duplicate packets), versus using XMesh (i.e., 36% packet reception rate and 46% packet success rate, with 3%–4% duplicate packets). The deployment cost of the 52-node, 253-sensor WSN is $31,500 with an additional $600 per month in labor and maintenance resulting in a cost of $184 m−2·y−1 of sensed area. Network maintenance during the first four years of operation was performed on average every 12 days, costing approximately $187 for each field visit. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; testbed; long-term deployment; network performance; network costs; environmental monitoring wireless sensor networks; testbed; long-term deployment; network performance; network costs; environmental monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro, M.; Davis, T.W.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Zhong, X.; Erratt, N.; Liang, X.; Liang, Y. Towards Long-Term Multi-Hop WSN Deployments for Environmental Monitoring: An Experimental Network Evaluation. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2014, 3, 297-330.

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