Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Fluorescent Nano-Probes to Image Plant Cell Walls by Super-Resolution STED Microscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Nitrogen Fertilizer Management in Dryland Wheat Cropping Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Raman Imaging of Plant Cell Walls in Sections of Cucumis sativus
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Plants 2018, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/plants7010010

Imaging and Spectroscopy of Natural Fluorophores in Pine Needles

1
Biotransformation, Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3010, New Zealand
2
Forest Protection, Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3762 KB, uploaded 2 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Many plant tissues fluoresce due to the natural fluorophores present in cell walls or within the cell protoplast or lumen. While lignin and chlorophyll are well-known fluorophores, other components are less well characterized. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of fresh or fixed vibratome-cut sections of radiata pine needles revealed the presence of suberin, lignin, ferulate, and flavonoids associated with cell walls as well as several different extractive components and chlorophyll within tissues. Comparison of needles in different physiological states demonstrated the loss of chlorophyll in both chlorotic and necrotic needles. Necrotic needles showed a dramatic change in the fluorescence of extractives within mesophyll cells from ultraviolet (UV) excited weak blue fluorescence to blue excited strong green fluorescence associated with tissue browning. Comparisons were made among fluorophores in terms of optimal excitation, relative brightness compared to lignin, and the effect of pH of mounting medium. Fluorophores in cell walls and extractives in lumens were associated with blue or green emission, compared to the red emission of chlorophyll. Autofluorescence is, therefore, a useful method for comparing the histology of healthy and diseased needles without the need for multiple staining techniques, potentially aiding visual screening of host resistance and disease progression in needle tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: autofluorescence; lignin; suberin; ferulate; flavonoid; terpene; chlorophyll; pine needle; spectroscopy autofluorescence; lignin; suberin; ferulate; flavonoid; terpene; chlorophyll; pine needle; spectroscopy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Donaldson, L.; Williams, N. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Natural Fluorophores in Pine Needles. Plants 2018, 7, 10.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top